The Moustached Laughingthrush Garrulax cineraceus is an alien species in Japan that has been recorded up until now only in southwestern Shikoku. On October 4, 2015, five birds were captured for the first time in Kagawa Prefecture, northeastern Shikoku, indicating that the range of this species in Japan is expanding. In the most-recent checklist (del Hoyo & Collar 2016), G. cineraceus is split into two species: G. cineraceus and G. cinereiceps. The dull dark grey or brownish grey on the crown, the chestnut or yellowish brown (antique brown) supercilium and ear-coverts, and either no or just a narrow blackish postocular eyestripe indicated these five birds to be G. cinereiceps, which occurs naturally in central and southern China. Measures to combat this alien species are needed urgently to prevent G. cinereiceps becoming established outside of Shikoku and spreading over the rest of Japan.
A line census survey has been undertaken at the Imperial Palace, Tokyo, every month since 1965. From July 2013 to May 2017 we conducted a monthly line transect census of 4.1 km between 9 : 00–12 : 00 and a twice-yearly capture census with 5–7 mist nets (6 or 12 m length). During the line census, we observed 16,493 individuals of 67 species, with 16 species being numerically dominant (90%). Compared to the preceding line census study (2009–2013), the numbers of Apus nipalensis, Dendrocopos major, Aegithalos caudatus, and Emberiza variabilis showed an increase, whereas those of Anas zonorhyncha, Poecile montanus, Spodiopsar cineraceus, Anthus hodgsoni, Coccothraustes coccothraustes, Turdus naumanni, and Columba livia had decreased. The seasonal fluctuation in the number of species recorded was similar to the preceding study, in that from November to April, 25–30 species were observed; thereafter the number of species declined to 15 species or less in August and September, and then increased to 20 species in October. Tachybaptus ruficollis, Streptopelia orientalis, Ardea cinerea, Accipiter gentilis, Dendrocopos kizuki, Corvus macrorhynchos, Poecile varius, Parus minor, Hypsipetes amaurotis, Cettia diphone, Aegithalos caudatus, Zosterops japonicus, Passer montanus and Motacilla alba were regarded as resident species. Anas zonorhyncha, Hirundo rustica, Chloris sinica and the above 14 species were thought to breed in or around the study area. We captured a total of 247 individuals, representing 20 species, among which Cyanoptila cyanomelana, Turdus cardis and T. obscurus were not recorded in the line census.
Japanese names are a useful tool for Japanese speakers to communicate about birds. However, over 30 years have already passed since the most influential book treating all modern birds and providing Japanese names, “A World List of Birds” (Yamashina 1986), was published. During that time, the classification of birds has undergone major changes. Here we provide a revised list of Japanese names of owl species (Strigiformes) which adopts the latest classification system (Gill & Donsker 2017). When compiling our list, we paid attention to ensuring the stability, brevity and correctness of Japanese names.