Black-tailed Gulls Larus crassirostris have a black band on the upper tail. I measured the length from the tip of the tail to the outermost edge of the black band (white fringe on tail edge) of 22 captive individuals in the Ueno Zoological Gardens. The length of the white fringe increased in relation to the age of each individual. Therefore, it was suggested that the age of Black-tailed Gulls can be determined by the length of the white fringe until at least four or five years of age.
The causes of death of albatrosses are not well documented, owing to them breeding on remote uninhabited islands. During the chick-rearing season in late February 2004, two sub-adult Black-footed Albatrosses were found dead at Hatsunezaki colony, Torishima, Izu Islands. This locality holds the largest breeding population of this species in the western North Pacific. Leg bands indicated both birds to have been fledged at the same colony on the island in the early 2000s; one was 25 months old and another was 37 months old. The former was found to have a broken humerus and clavicle, and we therefore posit that it had died after crashing to the ground in the strong wind turbulence that had prevailed above the colony during the two days prior to discovery of the corpse. The latter individual was diagnosed with enteritis and ulcers throughout the small intestine, which probably resulted in its death.
We observed the behavior of eleven female Mandarin Ducks Aix galericulata during the incubation period. They left nests twice a day, in the early morning and evening. After that, they bathed, preened and foraged hurriedly in a short space of time. They were absent from the nest for a shorter time on the day before fledging and on the morning of fledging day than on other days during the incubation period.
The Yamashina Institute of Ornithology owns the 11,982 photograph collection of Kenji Shimomura (1903–1967), the pioneer of wildlife photography in Japan. One of the prints in the collection (ID no.: AVSK_PM_1198, Fig.1a) depicts the stomach contents of Crested Ibis Nipponia nippon. When the computer database of the Shimomura collection was made, the photographer of this print was plausibly thought to be Shimomura, but was uncertain. Later we discovered in some publication that this photo was taken by Jicho Ishizawa (1899–1967), an insect and bird researcher at the then Wildlife Research Laboratory of the Ministry of Agriculture. Because the photo showing stomach contents of the endangered wild Crested Ibis is rarely publicized, we are of the opinion that the accurate identification of the photographer is academically important. Based on the memorandum on the backside of the print, handwriting analysis was made by Shimomura's and Ishizawa's relatives. The implications of the rubber stamps on the backside were also considered. These investigations concluded that the photo in question was almost certainly taken by Ishizawa, who also identified the stomach contents. We hope that this example will alert researchers to the possibility of incorrect citation of the photographer in earlier publications already published, and that, when detected, these be corrected in subsequent citations. Comments on related subjects that arose through the process of identifying the photographer are also given.