Video monitoring on breeding nests of a pair of Golden Eagles Aquila chrysaetos japonica in the Kitakami Mountains, Iwate, Northern Honshu, Japan, revealed that fish were supplied as food for nestlings. Fishes, totalling 57 individuals, were presented to chicks in four of the seven years analyzed, and comprised 19% of the 306 total prey animals detected. All fish were brought by the male, and most of them were removed from the nest by the female soon after, except for 10 fishes consumed by the female and nestlings. Fish supply during the nestling period was either continuous or temporary, depending on the year. Fish species could not be identified, but the variations in size, coloration, pattern and shape of fishes indicated various species were used. The method of obtaining fish was unknown, but the variation of fish species and irregular supply patterns suggested the possibility that Golden Eagles snatched prey from fish-eating birds, such as Western Ospreys Pandion haliaetus.
The breeding distribution and the number of active nests of the Japanese Cormorant Phalacrocorax capillatus were examined throughout the Sanriku coast of Iwate Prefecture during the 2021 and 2022 breeding periods. A total of 207 and 281 nests were confirmed in 14 and 17 breeding sites, respectively.
The Hawfinch Coccothraustes coccothraustes is considered as a winter visitor to Japan. There is a breeding record of the Hawfinch in Nagano Prefecture in the past. We observed the breeding of Hawfinch from June to July 2022 in the Yashimagahara wetland of Kirigamine Highlands, Nagano. On July 3 and 7, 2022, a video camera was used to film a nest for 90 minutes each day, and three nestlings were confirmed. On July 16, 2022, two fledglings were observed near the nest.
The purpose of this study is to record juvenile Peregrine Falcons with streaks on the undertail coverts (including a possible Falco peregrinus calidus), and to report the pale variation in Japanese Peregrine F. p. japonensis and the examination of the undertail coverts among the Peregrine subspecies. Although juvenile Peregrine Falcons are stated as having barred markings on the undertail coverts, four individuals were recorded with streaks on the undertail coverts in Kyushu. Which subspecies they belonged to was examined by comparing descriptions, illustrations and photographs in the literature, and the author’s photographs of Japanese Peregrines that fledged in Fukuoka Prefecture. Whether the markings on the undertail coverts could be one of the distinguishing points to identify the subspecies were also examined from images in illustrated books and photo collections. As a result, although the subspecies were not completely identified, three individuals had characteristics of light-colored subspecies, such as F. p. calidus and the North American Tundra Peregrine F. p. tundrius, and one individual had characteristics of dark-colored subspecies, such as Peale’s Peregrine F. p. pealei, suggesting that they may not be Japanese Peregrines. One of the juveniles that fledged in Fukuoka Prefecture had a morphology partly different from that of common Japanese Peregrines, suggesting the need for clarification of individual variation among Japanese Peregrines. The markings on the undertail coverts tended to be consistent among subspecies and could be one of the points of identification. It is hoped that the morphological characteristics of each subspecies of Peregrine will be elucidated through the accumulation of knowledge in the future.
The vegetation of the Tamagawa-josui Canal, which is a precious urban green belt running through an area of Tokyo, varies according to tree management practices. We recorded the species and individual numbers of birds (seven times) and measured tree diameters (18 plots) at four sites along the canal in 2021. At Mitaka and Kodaira, where woods along the canal were rich and green patches were also available near the canal, the bird communities were rich. In contrast, at Suginami, where the canal was sandwiched between heavily used roads and green patches were limited, species numbers and populations of birds were comparatively poor. The Azure-winged Magpie (Cyanopica cyanus), the Jungle Crow (Corvus macrorhynchos) and the Rock Dove (Columba livia) were relatively abundant. The bird community was poorest at Koganei, where only cherry trees were planted and other trees were cleared, although a big park was available near the canal. Forest dwelling birds were particularly few and only birds adaptable to urbanized environments, such as the White-cheeked Starling (Sturnus cineraceus) and the Tree Sparrow (Passer montanus) were relatively abundant. The pattern of seasonal changes in bird populations at Tamagawa-josui Canal closely resembled those seen at the Imperial Palace and Akasaka Imperial Residence in central Tokyo. The Brown-eared Bulbul (Hypsipetes amaurotis) and other forest dwelling birds decreased in summer. The results of the present study suggest that the bird communities along the Tamagawa-josui Canal are affected by the ambient vegetation, which is a direct result of anthropogenic management practices. We note the necessity to evaluate this perspective on biodiversity for the future vegetation management of this canal.
An Emperor Goose Anser canagicus was observed in Yakumo, Hokkaido, Japan from 18 July to 13 August, 2022. The Emperor Goose started moulting the wing feathers from 22 July, 2022, but after 13 August while in the middle of moulting the individual was no longer observed. This is the first record of the summertime moulting of the Emperor Goose in Japan.
Mandarin Duck Aix galericulata females caring for ducklings were observed in the urban area of Sapporo, Hokkaido. Breeding sites were the campus of Hokkaido University, Nakajima-Park, and the garden of the Hokkaido Government Office and Botanic Garden of Hokkaido University. The number of breeding females has increased with the expansion of the range of nesting sites in the urban area from 2012 to 2022.