コバシウミスズメ Brachyramphus brevirostris の，ロシアの繁殖分布域以南の海域への移動と漂行を把握するため，過去から最近までの出現記録を掘り起こし精査した．繁殖分布域の南限もしくは南限近くのカムチャッカ半島南東部の海域では少数個体がこれまで出現していた．1828年に採取されたタイプ標本2体は，検証の結果，F. H. von Kittlitz がPetropavlovskあるいはカムチャッカ北東部のどちらかで採集したものだった．繁殖海域以南の記録はわずかに13件で，このうち10件の記録では間違いなく本種とする認定ができたが，残る3件では信憑性はあったが本種だとは判断できなかった．1975年以降の記録は11件あり，そのうち10件の記録で本種だと確認できた．カムチャッカ半島最南端近くでは，唯一Vestnik湾での1972年の記録が本種と認定できた．サハリン島では，1986年に Kholmsk の沖合 40 km と 43 km 沖合の Moneron Island 沿岸での2記録と，Chaivo湾で1999年に得られた計3記録が本種と判断できた．千島列島では，1928年Paramushir島での記録，2009年の国後島での記録，そして1890年以前の詳細な場所および日付が不明な記録の計3件について本種と判断した．北海道では1890年以前の初期の複数の報告は既にいずれも後年，種の誤判定もしくは千島列島からの記録と判明しており，1975年以前の出現記録はなかった．近年（1975～2004年）になって北海道東部の沖合で目撃された5件の記録を照合した結果，2件が本種と判断できたが，残り3件は本種と判断できなかった．確定できた記録には1999年3月，65 km 沖合の十勝—釧路航路での出現記録も含む．このように，千島列島，サハリン島，および推定繁殖地南限から至近でも 1,500 km 離れた北海道沿岸ではコバシウミスズメはごく僅かな出現記録しかなく，このことは，コバシウミスズメは通常よりもはるかに南下する年があるものの，南下移動範囲は北海道南方の寒流域までだということを示す．もう1例の，北海道東部からさらに 950 km 南に位置する東京湾近くで観察された2004年の記録は，おそらく稀な気象条件がもたらした漂行と考えられた．繁殖分布域の南にあたる東アジアでのコバシウミスズメの出現状況の変化を監視する測定基準をつくるには，今後，証拠を備えた記録の積み上げが必要である．
A previous study has demonstrated that the population size of the Tree sparrow Passer montanus in Japan is declining. To confirm this, we examined reports on the number of tree sparrows banded in Japan from 1987 to 2008. If the population size of the tree sparrow is actually diminishing, then the numbers banded should also reflect this. Results showed that the number of tree sparrows banded over this period decreased by more than half, and support previous studies documenting the decline of the tree sparrow in Japan.
The Copper Pheasant Syrmaticus soemmerringii is endemic to Japan and information on its breeding ecology in the wild is fragmentary. To examine the breeding schedule and mating system of this species, I set artificial feeding stations at three sites in Mie Prefecture, Japan, from 2003 to 2009, and observed courtship display, drumming, wattle around the eye, and molt of individuals. Individuals were identified mainly by body (and tail) size and plumage color. The egg-laying period was estimated to be from mid-March to April, based on the breeding schedule of individuals in cages. Males and females had bright red wattles from late-February to April and late-February to May, respectively. The mating period was obscure because courtship displays were observed in June, September and November. Males molted their tail from late June to early November. Some young females and adult females used feeders together until the following May. If they belonged to the same family, the family period lasted for one year. Young males disappeared from the family group in late August. At each feeding station, there was one male and female that continued to use the feeder and appeared together at the feeder. Although other males and females sometimes used the feeder, courtship displays were observed only between the male and female that used the feeder continuously. Only the male that continually used the feeder showed drumming by wing whirring. These results suggest that the Copper Pheasant is socially monogamous.
We observed a young Gray-faced Buzzard Butastur indicus picking up and eating insect larvae from inside the nest. Taxonomic examination of one of the larvae revealed it to be approximately 25 mm in length and characterized by a thick and C-shaped body with obvious legs on the thorax and no urogomphi. These features indicated the insect to belong to the superfamily Scarabaeoidea within the family Coleoptera. Scarabaeoidea may breed in nests of the Gray-faced Buzzard, as shown recently in other carnivorous birds, including the Honey Buzzard Pernis apivorus, Northern Goshawk Accipiter gentilis, Oriental Stork Ciconia boyciana and Great cormorant Phalacrocorax carbo.
Nest sites, breeding seasons and breeding success of the Goshawk Accipiter gentilis were studied in the south of Kyoto Prefecture from 1993 to 2010. The Goshawk nested in the mixed forest of evergreen and deciduous trees and preferred red pine Pinus densiflora as nesting trees. Eggs were laid from mid April to early May, and hatched from late May to early June. Average clutch size was 2.9 (n=8) and average number of fledglings was 1.9 (n=9).
In June 2011, an unusually high mortality of the migratory Short-tailed Shearwater Puffinus tenuirostris occurred in Mutsu Bay in northernmost Honshu, Japan. One hundred and fifty six carcasses were recorded along a 1 km stretch of beach. Prior to this stranding, 40 birds had been observed floating in the nearby area of the bay. All of them were presumably juveniles that had departed from their natal places in the austral autumn in late April or early May and mistakenly entered into the semi-enclosed bay through Tsugaru Strait en route to the northern summering waters of the cooler current.