This study aims to make clear how sewing education changed during the prewar period by examining Jun Narita's concept of dressmaking education. Sewing education had a lot to do with people's everyday clothing life. Still, in previous studies, the social and economic background of people's clothing has been overlooked. In this study, various social dimensions which surrounded sewing education are also examined. This approach facilitates criticizing the gender role ideology in sewing education in an effective way. After the big earthquake in Tokyo of 1923, women in the city ares realized the inconvenience of kimono and started to wear western style clothes. This change created a crisis in sewing education in higher girl's school. Until then, the skill of Japanese style sewing had been mainly taught. However, Japanese style sewing alone could no longer meet the demand of the girls who had already experienced wearing Western dresses. Sewing education needed a drastic change. In 1926, the Ministry of Education sent Narita to the UK. She learned the new way of dressmaking which had become popular after World War I. After returning, she started to promote dressmaking in sewing education. By the middle of the 1930s, dressmaking education played an important role in sewing education played an important role in sewing education due to her promotion. In the 1930s as Westernization of clothing in the city area progressed, a ready-made industry began to rise gradually. The whole industry structure related to clothing started to change at that time. Women who had sewn their clothes began to buy ready-made dresses instead of sewing them. Some of the educators of sewing education who were aware of this change insisted that sewing education should provide students with not only sewing skill but integrated knowledge concerning various aspects of daily clothing. However, Narita did not agree with this way of thinking. On the contrary, she withheld her enthusiastic support for Westernization of clothing when she began to see women in 'odd' Western dress. She thought every woman should sew their family's clothes no matter how convenient it was to buy ready-made cloth, because she regarded sewing as an essentially indispensable activity for women. This point of view was shared with educators of Japanese sewing skill who were basically against Westernization of clothing. That is to say, Narita persisted in the skill of sewing, whether it was Japanese style or western style. Despite the change in the clothing industry structure, the contents of sewing education reminded as a skill-activity during the prewar period. The shortage of goods during World War II made people unable to buy new cloth. Skill in sewing became a demand for recycling old clothes. So, Narita's concept of how sewing education should be fostered remained important under the old school system. After World War II, sewing education became a part of homemaking education, and the number of lessons decreased. Still, this "decline in sewing education" didn't start suddenly after World War II. Its signs were already apparent in the prewar period, when a change of the industry structure related to clothing started.
This is a historical study on police and education in the 18th century France. In the ancien regime, different from today, police treated all marginal problems; immorality, insanity, pauperism, and so on. M. Foucault often emphasized its importance, but police have been largely neglected in historical research on education. Even if education was studied by police, it was frequently mistaken for discipline without sufficient historical sources. This paper concretely defines police by examining famous texts on police by J. J. Rousseau, Montesquieu and N. Delamare. Initially, the concept of police was referred to in the political writings of Rousseau and Montesquieu. Both orthodox historians and Foucault curiously made no mention of the relation between police and them, though Rousseau often used the word 'police' and Montesquieu allotted one ohapter of De I'Esprit de Lois to police. For example, Rousseau said that police were close to the education of children. According to Montesquieu, the affairs of police covered everything trivial, and must quickly be brought to conclusions not by law but by regulation. These are important sources on police. In addition, I discuss police administration by use of Delamare's work. Nicolas Delamare(1639-1725) was a professional police officer. His Traite de la Police(1705-1719) is the most interesting source to know facts regarding police. Delamare said that police aimed at all details to make people happy in their life. It was the art of government to promote welfare. He regarded many things as its object for this purpose: religion, custom, health, food, security, highway, science, commerce, manufacture, domestic affairs, and paupers. The category of police also included education: College, charity school, child care and lettres de cachet. All these things were objectives of police administration. College were so dangerous that police inspected them to prevent disorder. Charity school also experienced many disturbances not only by students, but also by parents. Many teachers were insulted, threatened and even attacked in the classroom by parents, and police orders heavily fined them. Child care was the most important problem of police. Orphanages and shortage of wetnurse were social problems in Paris. In 1769, lieutenant Generale de Police established public institutions for wetnurses. Furthermore, dealing with lettres de cachet was also the duty of police lieutenants. Many families petitioned police to protect themselves from troublesome members by this warrant. It must be emphasized that education was a police objective. Its administration by police was considered from various aspects such as poor relief, public health, and prevention of crime. Police thought of education as a part of the total government to improve social welfare. In this history, moreover, family grew to be a main field of action to defend society through education. Any trivial disorder must be purged from family, because social disorder came from there. This felicity of families was considered essential not only to personal life but also to societal life. The strategy of education by police focused on family against social marginality; family must be filled with moral, health and wealth by police.
This paper aims: (1) to examine the process of formation of the principle of dynamism in the educational thought of Frederic Lister Burk; and (2) to make clear the relation between child study and progressive education, focusing on the change of the meaning of spontaneity or dynamism. Frederic Lister Burk, the first president of San Francisco State Normal School from 1899 to 1924, represents a vital link between the child study movement and the progressive education movement. He was a disciple of G.Stanley Hall, the father of the child study movement, and a mentor of Carleton W.Washburne and Helen Parkhurst who were both influential progressive educators in the 1920s. Burk studied psychology at Clark University in the mid-1890s and became an admirer of G.Stanley Hall. He believed that the child, if given complete freedom, would recapitulate the development of the race naturally, and assumed that the internal forces of the child would lead to its development. The curriculum of the kindergarten, he asserted, must be based on the process of human development, or the genetic order. Burk became a superintendent of public schools of Santa Barbara, California in 1898. He was still so impressed with child study and the recapitulation theory that he introduced free play into one public kindergarten there. He thought free play would give children opportunities to develop naturally without any disturbances. He and staff members of Santa Barbara public schools made some experiments to examine and classify children's free and spontaneous activities. The experiments, unexpectedly, showed him that children's spontaneous activities were not simply recapitulation of lower races but included creative expressions. After the experiments, Burk attained a very different view on child development from Hall's. He noticed the importance of environments and creative expression of children that would direct their development, while Hall believed in natural or genetically determined development of the child. He became the first president of the San Francisco State Normal School in 1899. He abolished the lock-step system of instruction, and devised individual instruction to develop child's dynamism. Burk thought dynamism included not only spontaneity and internal forces but also creativity of the child. Carleton W.Washburne, Working under Burk at San Francisco State Normal School, studied Burk's individual instruction, and later elaborated upon it to devise the Winnetka Plan. Helen Parkhurst, Who was the supervisor of all Montessori schools in the United States at that time, imitated Burk's individual instruction to invent the Dalton Plan. Burk learned through child study that the child should be educated in accordance with his nature and heredity. But he changed the deterministic view of the recapitulation theory that emphasized heredity and nature too much, because he found creative impulses in child's spontaneous activities and thinking that later he called dynamism.