The study of education is suffering from a lack of fundamental courses for novices, though each area has become increasingly specific. We all realize that pedagogy focused on school practices between teachers and pupils has already lost much of its influence as a culture by which a novice could be initiated into educational thought and with which the study of education might be identified as a discipline. This paper, then, examines the relevance of liberal philosophy in the improvement of culture in education, by comparing the culture of pedagogy with the culture of andragogy, to the effect that a liberal philosophy based on the value of neutrality is insufficient for the culture of education in a society of value plurality and needs to be improved by perfectionist notions. Liberal philosophy demands two different policies of education: to remain neutral against any interests and to encourage everyone to be autonomous. The liberal value of neutrality, as it is assumed to be one of the main values in the liberalism of R.Dworkin, has provided pedagogy with a foundation for its autonomy and its practice in teacher education. Yet it is regarded as a value of education provided that there exist individuals who can choose to live their own lives well and autonomously. Modemity, as A.Maclyntre argues, excludes the possibility of the existence of an 'educated public' so that it leaves the liberal value of neutrality helpless in tems of educational culture since it does not suggest what exactly the good life might be. Personal autonomy can be also regarded as a value when it is proved to be moral autonomy. So it is the value of morality that we have to clarify to improve the culture of education. Both a neutrality-stance and an autonomy-stance of liberal philosophy fail to clarify the value of morality in education, though both admit the value of morality above all others. J.Raz's perfectionist notions of liberal values, however, consider an intimate connection between autonomy and morality in terms of well-being and give us useful suggestions for public support for the citizen's education. Raz argues for self-definition and choice so far as they are not detached from the public good. The paper concludes that the arguments by liberal philosophers help us to improve the culture of education, especially the culture of andragogy, which is different from pedagogy in seeing any demands for educational support to be justified. The table of contents of this paper is as follows:  On the Subject  Dual Faces of Liberal Philosophy (1) Liberalism and the Culture of Education (2) Educational Doctrines of Liberal Philosophy (3) Dual Faces of Modem Liberal Philosophy  The Culture of Education from the Viewpoint of Liberal Philosophy (1) Dual Faces of Modem Education (2) Neutrality and Autonomy as Liberal Values (3) Morality as Aporia for Liberal Philosophy  Perfectionist Liberalism and Education as Support (1) Liberalism and Value Plurality (2) Perfectionist Liberalism (3) Perfectionist Liberalism and Education as Support  Conclusion
"Kyoyoshugi" is a creed (or an 'ism') of personality development which emerged among Japanese intellectuals at the end of the Meiji period (in the era that began in 1910). Under the influence of the German concept of culture, "Bildung", the young elite hoped to become men of character through absorbing the great human cultures, especially the philosophies, arts and sciences of the West. They expected that their reasoning powers and wills, which control their behavior, would be empowered through contact with the great Western works. The young elite succeeded in developing their self-control in this way to a certain extent but, at the same time, they became concerned and felt they had lost intimate contact with the earth and others around them. Kyoyoshugi was in vogue mainly among high school (Kyuseikotogakko) and university students. And, as it has often been pointed out, these young elitists wanted to become cultivated men only to discriminate themselves from the young people who could not afford higher education. In this respect, Kyoyoshugi was rather snobbish. Many Japanese education scholars have criticized this negative side of Kyoyoshugi, especially following World War Two. Among these critics, Shuichi Katsuta, one of the eminent leaders of the new era, proposed a new concept of culture that was based on highly esteemed works of mankind. According to Katsuta, human beings have developed their senses and abilities such as thinking and communicating. Among these, the ability to think scientifically has attained significant importance to us in the modern industrial era. Katsuta insisted that a cultured person should possess various abilities and maintain them in harmony and that contributions made by these people would help society to progress. Katsuta believed that there were no limits for human beings to develop their abilities because the modern scientific technologies would seemingly continue to develop infinitely. We no longer agree with this optimistic view, since we have already come to realize that the modern scientific technologies can be used aggressively against nature and can seriously damage the earth's Eco-system. Reconsidering Katsuta's concept of culture and Kyoyoshugi from this point of view, we find a defect common to them, which is the same defect common to modern thought. Modern intelligence is productive. It produces not only goods but also the realities of things by means of representations, concepts and inferences. This way of thinking is utilitarian, and man-centric, and tends to ignore other beings. Beings that are not clearly represented in man's consciousness are neglected and often seen as being meaningless. The mental sufferings of the young elite culturists (Kyoyoshugisha) were also most likely caused by this difficulty found in modern thought. If a new culture can be constructed, it should be founded on an alterative way of thinking and communication. It should enable us to restore the senses and abilities that we have presumably lost in the modern era.
In the l990's, the reform of university curricula raised numerous statements on Kyoyo. Kyoyo means culture or cultivation, as corresponding to Paideia or Bildung. It has been a term used to express the ideal disposition of the intellectual since around 1910 in Japan, and contemporary discussions on Kyoyo are regarded as the fourth phase of modem Japan. The contemporary discussion on Kyoyo at the post-popularization stage of higher education is characterized by its interest in curriculum and education rather than the value of academic learning itself. Will it be a correct solution for the creation of general higher education for every citizen, one of the supreme tasks of educational science in post-war Japan? In order to investigate the historical premise of this question, this paper examines the tradition of two modes of character building, Kyoyo and Shuyo. This is especially significant in terms of the detachment and relevance between the two in the 1930s when the meaning of the word Kyoyo itself was established through its detachment from Shuyo. Shuyo is the pre-modem ideal of character building and it admonishes diligence and sincerity if one is too focused on the acquisition of trivial knowledge. In the l930s, although people of older generations use Kyoyo almost interchangeably with Shuyo, the detachment of the two became salient. Kyoyo implies ones whole humanity, while Shuyo stresses the importance of morals, which subjugate intellect or knowledge. Kyoyo rose to prominence with the influence of Western culture as part of the modernization process, while Shuyo has been rooted in indigenous culture since medieval days. Kyoyo and Shuyo were also different in their relation to science, and Kyoyo was thought to be somewhere between Shuyo and science with its emphasis on the balance between conservation and progress. The ultimate difference between Kyoyo and Shuyo was the stress on in1le11ectualism. Because of this, the intellectuals who advocated Kyoyo criticized the status quo of education as it had been regarded as intellectual exercise with an overemphasis on education. For the advocates of Kyoyo it was not possible to have too much knowledge and without knowledge it was impossible to make appropriate judgements. In the l930s, Kyoyo, from the perspective of its relationship to learning, developed into two branches of argument related character building. One is concerned with breadth of cultivation, in order to cope with the specialization of learning. It advocates having comprehensive and consistent knowledge and interest. The other is concerned with depth of cultivation, which was to be attained in the process of engaging in specialized learning. Making selfless efforts in specialized research was thought to be one method of training oneself and of character development. On the point of character building through academic training, Kyoyo shares some relevance with Shuyo. After analyzing the historical analysis of detachment and relevance of Shuyo and Kyoyo, one needs to be reminded to reflect on meaningful learning at higher education institutions, not only for development of breadth but also for development of depth and academic training. This has been regarded as the "true" Kyoyo or method of character building.
The purpose of this paper is to clarify the significance of the concept "Culture (Buildung in German) as Bodily Wisdom" and to put the role of our living bodies in pedagogical context by examing Japanese traditional culture and education. This concept has two major effects. The one effect is to make us regard the wisdom obtained through the bodily experience as an aspect of culture. The other effect is to make us appreciate the importance of our bodies in learning classical cultures, for example reading aloud and reciting the classical poems. The living body is the main concept of Merleau-Ponty's "Phenomenology of perception" "Culture (Buildung in German) as Bodily Wisdom" is based on our living bodies. Culture is usually regarded as a problem of acquisition of a wide range knowledge, obtained by reading many standard books. But until the 19th century, it had been very important for Japanese to learn with their five senses, in other words the living body. In Japanese traditional learning methods, the mind could not be separated from the body. For Japanese in past times cultivating their minds meant cultivating their living bodies in their daily lives. This was why cultured people were expected to master some kind of physical practices. The very process to improve physical skills by practicing many times was the core of the culture. The Japanense who best represented the idea of "Culture (Buildung in German) as Bodily Wisdom" was Enosuke Ashida (1873-1951), who was an excellent elementary school teacher. He exercised a particular physical practice which applied traditional breathing methods. He thought that the physical practice was important not only for his own health, in both mind and body, but also for his education. This fundamental physicalpractice was a kind of technology of the self. For Ashida and most Japanese of past years, culture meant the process of cultivating both mind and body.
"Culture" is a somewhat ambiguous concept. Its definition can be largely divided into two areas: (1) deepened culture, the sum total of knowledge acquired through professional and total of knowledge acquired through professional and sophisticated intellectual activities, and (2) broadened culture, the collection of wideranging and fundamental information acquired by means of intentionally arranged methods. In the context of historical circumstances which forced Japan to achieve modernization through the conscious transfer of western civilization, universities have long functioned as an exclusive destination for, as well as a source of, vast amounts of information that make up "culture." Cultural elements accumulated and disseminated through universities were initially 'deepened culture, ' but they were gradually reorganized and systematized into "broadened culture" that needs to be intentionally disseminated as a perfected foundation of learning for the modern population. Culture has been undergoing tremendous change in recent years. One of the causes is the changing nature of the media. The media casts profound effects on culture because an inevitable component of culture is the power of communication which allows the transfer, reorganization and crystallization of the results of spiritual activities of the people who lived in the past. In this sense, one can define culture as an activity which is possible only through communication with the outside world. Technological innovations in communication achieved so far have greatly influenced the quality and quantity of culture, precisely because of these strong connections between culture and the media. Today we are living in a world where technological renovation is changing the media almost on a daily basis. Therefore, culture, heavily affected by the media, is subjected to tremendous change. One of the visible consequences is "the crisis of culture, " which is a serious crisis. However, it is in this crisis that one can find a chance of changing the culture mechanism which had long been contained within the old frameworks of universities. Universities are no longer exclusive entities but they still remain to be the destination and source of accumulated knowledge. It is not an exaggeration to say that seeking the new format in culture is one of the most important challenges that faces modern universities.
The aim of this paper is to clarify the intimate relationship between the Corps for Building-up Our Fatherland (Sokoku Shinkou-tai) of Miyazaki Prefecture and The Collective Labor Service in Japan. There are three points to be discussed in this paper. The first point is the influence that The National Spiritual Mobilization on Miyazaki Prefecture had on the establishment of Corps for Building-up Our Fatherland. This Corps, which was established behind the strong leadership of the Prefectural governor, gave shape to The National Spiritual Mobilization in Miyazaki Prefecture. It was established in December 1937 and was focussed on the Middle schools, so most Middle schools in Miyazaki Prefecture participated. Its main activity was to work to develop the social infrastructure within the prefecture. Within this context, education was highly valued. The second point is the relationship between The Corps for Building-up Our Fatherland and government policy. The Corps' activities became well known throughout Japan. Therefore, many official Japanese government delegations and those from various prefectures visited Miyazaki Prefecture to review the corps' activities. Furthermore, the House of Representatives proposed that the Japanese Government should adopt the corps' prototype as national policy on March 24, 1938. This resulted in the establishment of similar corps throughout Japan. The third point of focus is an examiation of the Corps', and their activities in various prefectures, that were established as a result of the proposal from the House of Representatives to the Japanese government. I have introduced the examples of Kanagawa, Ishikawa, and Mie Prefectures, among others. From these, we were able to clarify that the official report from the Vice Minister of Education regarding the Collective Labor Service on June 9, 1938 was essentially an outline of the activities which were being practiced in Miyazaki Prefecture and other prefectures.
"Discipline" was a key concept in W.C.Bagley's theory. For him, "school discipline" meant "self-government, " the art of government as "mental attitude" in a socialized "self." At the same time, "school discipline" enabled "self-government" to be compatible with the "exercise of individual freedom" in the context of "democratic government." Bagley asserted that "disciplined will" was a part of "national preparedness" and that national order was basically derived from school order. His theory of "nationalism" also had a "social" or "spiritual" nature as that of "school discipline." For Bagley, "discipline" had to be acquired with "intelligence." He demanded that the Americans should have "intelligent devotion" within the "duty of intelligence" and that through "discipline" with "intelligence, " people ought to be intelligent national agents for "democracy." He thought that America should become a "community of culture". By 1938, Bagley's theory, which related "discipline" to "democracy, " had gone through two steps. One was the integration of "discipline" and "freedom, " that is to say, "disciplined freedom." Only through "freedom" based upon "discipline" could "democracy" in America struggle against Fascism and Communism and attain "world dominance". The other step was Bagley's declaration of deep belief in "educability" and "humanity" brought by "disciplinary function." He had discussions with two famous psychologists in that period, C.C.Brigham and L.M.Terman. From the standpoint of an "anti-determinist, " he criticized their ideas as being a "sweeping denial of disciplinary functions." Through "educability" and "humanity, " he intended that "democracy" be realized with "collective supremacy of the common man" and "cultural integration." However, Bagley didn't refute the eugenic viewpoints of Brigham and Terman. He supported "cultural integration, " with which he tried to avoid the "plend of blood, " through education. In other words, he strongly supported the purity of "blood." His concepts of "democracy, " "freedom" and "humanity" weren't necessarily in conflict with his eugenic thought. In conclusion, Bagley's concept of "discipline" can be summarized as having the following four aspects. First, he used "discipline" to analyze the daily art of child government. Second, he adopted "self-government" or "self-control" as being the inner art of government. Third, he related the macro power, which formed modern nations through "democracy" to the micro and inner power of "self-government". Fourth, through "discipline, " Bagley illustrated not only the problems of power but also the problems of shared knowledge or intelligence.