THE JAPANESE JOURNAL OF EDUCATIONAL RESEARCH
Online ISSN : 2187-5278
Print ISSN : 0387-3161
ISSN-L : 0387-3161
Volume 79 , Issue 1
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  • Shunsuke SHIBANUMA
    2012 Volume 79 Issue 1 Pages 1-12
    Published: March 30, 2012
    Released: November 28, 2017
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    The system by which school teachers conduct the employment placement for their students is characterized by the transition process from school to work in Japan after World War II. In this paper, we will call this system the employment placement conducted by the school (EPCS). Although EPCS is not recognized in any other countries, it has been considered to be self-evident in Japan. Recently, the problems of EPCS have been pointed out by some research. It is necessary to reconsider to what extent schools should and can have responsibility for the employment placement of their students. EPCS was institutionalized with the partial revision of the Employment Security Act (ESA) in 1949. This paper analyzed the deliberation process of the partial revision; with historical records such as the GHQ/SCAP Records, the Diet Minutes and so on, to clarify its progress and the significance of the institutionalization of EPCS. As a result, the following three points were clarified. Firstly, EPCS was not self-evident under the ESA enacted in 1947, and it was not only likely regarded as a violation of ESA, but also charged as a violation of it. Secondly, the revision of ESA in 1949 that gave the legal basis to EPCS signified the partial change of the original principle of ESA in 1947. Under the principle, the Public Employment Security Offices had the exclusive responsibility for employment placement. In cases where other agencies conducted employment placement, fee-charging employment placement services were prohibited, and free services were required to be certified by the Minister of Labor. Lastly, until ESA was revised in 1949, although the Ministry of Education and the Ministry of Labor opposed each other over regulation of Article 33 of ESA, both of these Ministries recognized the necessity to station the eligible personnel to each school who should perform employment placement exclusively aside from the teachers who should perform teaching. Although the problems were deliberated in the early terms of the deliberation process of revising ESA and during diet deliberations, in the end, it was not realized. Moreover, the frame of reference which regarded EPCS as a part of vocational guidance based on educational viewpoints existed in this deliberations process, and clouded the issue involved in considering the range of responsibility which schools should and can have. This framework seems to lead to current views today.
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  • Akiko HAYASHI
    2012 Volume 79 Issue 1 Pages 13-24
    Published: March 30, 2012
    Released: November 28, 2017
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    The purpose of this study is to shed light on the daily lives of students who live in economically disadvantaged families and to explore how they experience their career choosing processes by analyzing their life stories. In this study I analyzed the interview data of three high school students to grasp their life stories from their childhood through their high school entrance examination periods. The interview data was categorized according to episodes as follows: "childhood period", "elementary school days", "junior high school days" and "high school entrance examination period". I divided those episodes of each period into three domains by referring to the categories which T. Ridge developed; "economic material domain" "academic, social and human relation's domain of school life" and "the domain of their personal and family lives and their environment." I depicted their life stories by paying attention to the connection among those three domains. As a result of data analysis, it was found that they are living their lives in synch with the family and are strengthening their reference to the family. This leads to the high-risk course. Poverty triggered family troubles, divorces and house-moving and made their family lives unstable. Students were simultaneously obsessed with writing graffiti and indulging in the Internet. By getting caught for those problems and difficulties, students were streamed into the tracks of low academic performance. After entering junior high school they began to take responsibilities in their housework which brought them a feeling of self-affirmation. On the other hand, they were becoming absorbed into the world of the Internet and cell-phones to get their self-identities. In the late modern age we must guarantee self-identities by ourselves. From these things, housework, the Internet and a cellular phone will be strongly related with their life style. While they lead such lives, they come to face the high school entrance examination. Although teachers expect students to act independently and choose their careers by themselves, their family environments were not suitable for their learning. Since they depend on their family, they choose a course based on "the reference of the family." Based on this study we should stress the importance of supporting students' daily lives and taking care of their psychological aspects such as their self-esteem and self-identity in order to support their studying and learning. Welfare departments have to work intensely to support the whole life of children. School needs to develop and implement various educational activities and supporting actions to secure feelings of self-affirmation and self-esteem for all children. Then it is necessary to catch the identity problem in the context of the late modern age. And we need to be cautious of it being connected with the reference to the family.
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