THE JAPANESE JOURNAL OF EDUCATIONAL RESEARCH
Online ISSN : 2187-5278
Print ISSN : 0387-3161
ISSN-L : 0387-3161
Volume 80 , Issue 1
Showing 1-31 articles out of 31 articles from the selected issue
Paper
  • Tetsu NAKAZAWA
    2013 Volume 80 Issue 1 Pages 1-12
    Published: March 31, 2013
    Released: April 04, 2018
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    Kant's teaching begins with practicing understanding. He argues that the peculiar nature of philosophy demands it. There then follows the content of his lecture on Metaphysics. The nature peculiar to philosophy is that philosophy is originally an occupation for those who have attained the age of maturity. Difficulties arise when the attempt is made to adapt it to the less practised capacity of youth. This nature demands the practicing of understanding i.e. learning to think. It starts with exercising understanding in empirical judgments. The occupation of philosophy is to learn to philosophize. Here the student is inquiring and judges for himself the judgment of the philosophical writer. In order for youth to reach this stage practicing understanding is necessary. Learning to think is not the teaching of philosophy. It is different from learning to philosophize. The student engages in the latter after the former. Learning to think has a position as preparation for learning to philosophize. This also means it is preparation for inquiry. The learning of being inquiring needs the practiced capacity. In philosophy, the concept of a thing is confusedly or in an insufficiently determinate fashion given. The object of philosophy is difficult to grasp and involved(Inquiry). This situation is one factor that leads to Kant's claim that to learn philosophy is impossible and the youth ought to learn to philosophize. The student ought to learn to philosophize in Metaphysics' empirical psychology and cosmology. The student must practice his understanding before he is introduced to this stage. A.G. Baumgarten's Metaphysics is the textbook which has been chosen for the richness of its contents and the precision of its method. The philosophical writer, however, is not to be regarded as the paradigm of judgement. He ought rather to be taken as the occasion for forming student's own judgement about him, and even, indeed, for passing judgement against him. The exercising understanding in empirical judgements is the development of the ordinary understanding. It is education about the objects of the senses. There is a connection between the development of the sound understanding and science. Everything in the world that presents itself to our senses is examined in empirical psychology, cosmology, ontology of Metaphysics. The objects of empirical judgements are considered in these disciplines, too. The student should be enquiring in the three sciences. The empirical judgements grow into enquiring about the same objects. The development of the sound understanding has a position of the first step toward such a scientific stage. And when we pay attention to the above objects, we can find the following relation between two learnings. Learning by independent thinking activity, the student's being enquiring about these empirical objects demands not memorizing or understanding the empirical concepts about them but attaining them for himself by empirical judgements, that is, the exercise in acquiring concepts by independent thinking activity. It is the learning which needs experience for youth to attain clear knowledge about characteristic mark of objects by using experience for himself.
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  • Keita FURUYA
    2013 Volume 80 Issue 1 Pages 13-25
    Published: March 31, 2013
    Released: April 04, 2018
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    In recent years, economic individualism is often being criticized. Under the influence of contemporary thought from postmodernism and post-structuralism that criticized the modern autonomous individual, Dewey's concept of "collective intelligence" is drawing attention. However, in recent literature, an argument about the "collective intelligence" of Dewey in the 1930s when a policy of the collectivism was appreciated is not fully considered. Because it was in the 1930s mainly that he used the concept of "collective intelligence", in this paper, I focus on the Depression Era. Therefore, the purpose of this paper is to clarify the meaning of the "collective" in the philosophy of Dewey which includes his concept of "collective intelligence" as part of it. The conclusions are as follows. 1. Dewey's criticism of economic individualism is synonymous with the criticism of the corporate capitalism that is referred to in order to express the characteristics of the Progressive Era. This is because Dewey sees economic individualism as the ideology of corporate capitalism. Dewey objected to corporate capitalism pushing forward quantitative standardization and corporation under the name of respect for individuality. 2. Though it was a fact that Dewey showed empathy for collectivism, he was more interested in a condition to enable the free interaction between a person's inside and the reified cultural heritage rather than the policy and institutions of collectivism. At this point, Dewey was different from George Sylvester Counts who insisted that education needs indoctrination. For Dewey, the culture produced by "collective intelligence" is not the thing which is external for an individual, but also the interaction in which (s)he participates with it. 3. Dewey's concept of "collective intelligence" includes its relation with the individual intelligence logically. The aim of Dewey was to look for the alternative model for the "incorporated" individual in the Progressive Era. It was, for Dewey, the "integrated" personality that has restored the individual inside because it had an indivisible relation with "collective intelligence". This model shows that an individual is always mediated by "collective intelligence". It does not mean "a lost individual" in corporate capitalism any more. Dewey insists that, as the community of modern scientists suggests, through their experiments and communication, the individual intelligence could appropriate and then reorganize "collective intelligence". The "collective" for Dewey during the Depression is not limited to what collectivism means. Dewey asked for the United States to shift to a "Great Community" from a "Great Society" in The Public and Its Problems in 1927. On the one hand, it is certain that an argument of Dewey in the 1930s who asks for the shift to "new individualism" from the "older one" succeeds and reflects it. On the other hand, Dewey in the 1930s discussed scientists' cooperation and the artifact as collective intelligence which were not fully discussed in The Quest for Certainty in 1929. It shows that collectivism was used as a whetstone for his philosophy of anti-dualism, not as a policy or institutions.
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  • Megumi HASHIMOTO
    2013 Volume 80 Issue 1 Pages 26-38
    Published: March 31, 2013
    Released: April 04, 2018
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    This study focuses on the increase in the number of elementary school excursions to Ise Jingu (sanguryoko) in Tokyo Prefecture in the 1930s and reveals how and why they increased. The primary purpose of sanguryoko was to go and worship at Ise Jingu. Previous studies have not explained why the number of sanguryoko suddenly increased, especially considering the regional differences. Therefore, this study attempts to clarify from the viewpoint of the organizers from the Tokyo how and why it became increasingly popular. The chapters are as follows:
    1. The increase in the number of sanguryoko from Tokyo Prefecture
    2. Budgeting for sanguryoko by ward council of the City of Tokyo
    3. The campaign for discounted railway fares for sanguryoko
    4. The course of events culminating in the publication of Notice 198, "How to handle the trip by a group of elementary school children to visit Ise Jingu," by the Ministry of Railways
    First, we examined the background and facts as to how sanguryoko started in Tokyo Prefecture. Second, case studies of Koishikawa Ward and Shinagawa Ward are conducted to examine how the budget for sanguryoko was determined by each ward council of the City of Tokyo. Third, the fact that Educational Society of Tokyo Prefecture Union campaigned for discounted railway fares for sanguryoko is investigated. Fourth, the course of events culminating in the publication of Notice 198, "How to handle the trip by a group of elementary school children to visit Ise Jingu," by the Ministry of Railways on June 12, 1937 is examined. This notice was ordered by the Minister of Railways, Shinya Uchida, in response to years of requests for discounted railway fares for sanguryoko. The purpose of his order was to allow sixth-grade children from all over Japan to travel to Ise Jingu for free. As a result twenty percent of the number of participant was free. After that was determined, the City of Tokyo formed an association of ward councils and submitted a petition to ask the Ministry of Education and the Ministry of Railways to increase the discount for sanguryoko. The number of sanguryoko by elementary school children in Tokyo Prefecture increased because of a subsidy from each ward in Tokyo and the campaign of the Educational Society. The aim of these campaigns was to have all sixth graders participate in sanguryoko. The campaigns conducted by the Educational Society of Tokyo Prefecture Union led the Ministry of Railways to enact the notice, which established a system to provide substantial aid only for sanguryoko.
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  • Takao ENDO
    2013 Volume 80 Issue 1 Pages 39-51
    Published: March 31, 2013
    Released: April 04, 2018
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS

    Since its establishment in 1919, the Steiner School (Waldorf School) has aimed at "Education towards Freedom" (Erziehung zur Freiheit) and has been forced to sharply confront their views with the legislative and administrative framework of the existing education system. This is essentially unchanged nowadays, even if the "right to establish private schools" was incorporated into the Basic Law (Grundgesetz) of 1949, and today the "freedom of private schools" is guaranteed by legislation. Yet in the Waldorf School movement, which has developed through working towards the acquisition, authorization and expansion of its public status as a "free school", there remains a very important problem that has not yet received sufficient academic scrutiny. This is the question concerning the public status and rights of the Waldorf teacher training (Waldorflehrerausbildung), whose fundamental principle of instructing teachers to be "Educational Artists" (Erziehungskünstler) is based on anthroposophical anthropology, therefore differing from the teacher training under state control. Most importantly, what is the role of a teacher training that clearly deviates from the national standard, such as the Waldorf teacher training, in the educational system as a whole? The consideration of this issue has relevance for educational research that intends to clarify the meaning of "freedom" in the public education system from the viewpoint of teacher education. Incidentally, the systematic training of Waldorf School teachers began in 1928, three years after the death of Rudolf Steiner (1861-1925). However, it is important to note here that the candidates of this training were those who had already studied in the national teacher training, that is, holders of public teacher qualifications. Waldorf teacher training itself was only a supplementary education, and it did not in itself guarantee any right to public status or public qualifications. Given this fact, a Federal Administration Court ruling in 1993 is significant, as for the first time the Waldorf teacher training was authorized to provide qualifications equivalent to the national teacher training. Moreover, in 1999 the "Stuttgart teacher seminar" (Stuttgarter Lehrerseminar), which performs the Waldorf teacher training, was authorized by the state (the state of Baden-Württemberg) as an official "private university." The acquisition of a public status by the Waldorf teacher training realized in the 1990s signifies the renunciation of the long-standing tradition of the "state monopoly on teacher training" in Germany. This could be called a milestone in the history of German education. However, comprehensive research on such a remarkable subject has been almost completely unexplored, not only in Japan but also in Germany. This paper investigates in depth the process leading towards the Waldorf teacher training's acquisition of its public status, which gained momentum in the 1970s and especially during the trial concluded by the Federal Administrative Court ruling in 1993. The analysis also clarifies the important role that the Waldorf School movement has played in the improvement of the German education system. In summary, the following three conclusions are made in this paper: (1) The Waldorf teacher training is based on Steiner's thought, and it positions anthroposophical anthropology and artistic training at the core of its curriculum. However, this training, which began in 1928, did not have a public status equivalent to the national teacher training until 1993.

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