The purpose of this paper is to consider the change of the teachers' role as a result of arranging new professionals, such as school counselors and school social workers into Japanese schools. Previous studies made it clear that Japanese teachers have a special attitude that is called “Shidou” culture. Teachers are calling their various actions “Shidou” in schools, and they consider that all actions are educationally meaningful and all are teachers' work. And teachers consider it important to communicate and build trusting relationships with each of their students for “Shidou.” As a result of having such a culture, the range of teachers' work spreads without limits. However, the tendency of limiting teachers' role and specializing functions of schools is progressing in recent schools. It is thought that this arrangement of new professions is also such a tendency. What kind of change is taking place in fact for the teachers' role? I analyzed the data gathered by fieldwork conducted from April, 2010 to January, 2013 in elementary schools and junior high schools in city-A and city-B in prefecture-X. In analyzing, I used the idea of “the system of professions.” According to it, proximate professions negotiate their jurisdictions to tasks and works as one system. I focused on workplace negotiation here. I pictured the teachers' role, capturing how teachers, school counselors, and school social workers establish their jurisdictions. Analysis showed that teachers played a role of the gatekeeper of the problems on student guidance. Teachers had a strong jurisdiction about the task of gate keeping, judging what one should take up as a problem and to which professionals one should distribute a problem. And on the occasion of distribution, teachers were bearing the tasks broadly themselves as before. When expertise and assessments on professional knowledge were needed, they distributed the job to other professionals. Teachers were regarded as a center of the activity about student guidance not only from themselves but by other professionals. Teachers were positioned as “those who communicate with children in the school every day.” “Shidou” culture which valued everyday communication in contrast with the expertise of other professionals had become more strong. In the final part of this paper, I considered about what we should take care when professionals collaborate in schools.
In this article, the college-going behavior of Japanese female high school seniors was analyzed, using aggregate data for the prefectures of Japan and a national sample of Japanese twelfth graders and their parents. The aim of this analysis was to proposea hypothetical explanation that addresses the mechanisms generating the differences in female college attendance rates among prefectures, focusing on the pecuniary benefits of higher education that vary by region and could be received from both inside and outside the labor market. Major findings are as follows: first, a mechanism of enrollment choice is at work, which is common to both men and women. The analysis on twelfth graders whose prefectures of residence are in non-metropolitan areas clarified that the total rates of female advancement to colleges and those to colleges outside of living prefecture are higher in the prefectures with more female labor demand for the college-educated (defined as the number of college-educated youth workers divided by that of high-school-educated employees in their twenties in the prefecture where they reside). The female labor demand for college graduates is negatively correlated with the relative wage for females in their early twenties (average hourly wage for college graduates divided by that of the high-school-educated). The smaller the relative wage between high school graduates and those with baccalaureate degrees, the larger college attendance rates are. Second, there could be another mechanism affecting college-going behavior which might be applicable especially to female students. Regression analyses were conducted, inspired by an economic model that explains schooling investment decisions in terms of marriage-market returns: the increased share from household income and production by college education through enhanced intra-household bargaining power for wives. It was revealed that the total rates of female advancement to colleges and those to colleges outside of home prefecture are positively correlated to the future possibilities of labor participation expected from job opportunities for preceding generations; i.e.students’future prospects for regular employment or self-employment in the prefecture of their origin.
Tetsufumi Miyasakas’ (1918-1965) first book Human Development in Zen (March,1947) has been a basic reference for guidance and extracurricular activities. The purpose of this research note is to consider the theoretical transition of Miyasaka’s essays preceding this book. Tetsufumi Miyasaka, who wrote Human Development in Zen and Tokubetsu Kyoiku Katsudou (Extra-Curricular Activities) (1950) during the occupation of Japan,is an indispensable resource in considering the origins of extracurricular activities in post-war Japan. His father,Tesshu(1887-1973),wasa Zen priest involved in many educational institutions. Miyasaka was also interested in Zen,titling his graduation thesis “Study of Educational Form in a Zen Monastery”(November, 1941), which became the basis for Human Development in Zen. Therefore, Miyasaka’s post-war studies of extracurricular activities focused on theUnited States but retained the interest in Zen from the pre-war period; it wasnot something that started suddenly after the war. I studied the background to Human Development in Zen and identified the following facts: (1) papers presented during the war spoke of Zen from the academic perspective of educational history and appeared in many chapters of the book; (2) before publishing those papers in the book, partial revisions and rewriting took place to eliminate the wartime atmosphere created when thepapers werefirst written; and (3) all of his papers that had been presented were not published in the book. The essays presented during the war, but which were not in the book, were published in media journals controlled by the government, not as treatises, and they reflected the wartime atmosphere. Perhaps it was essential to exclude the essays because of the wartime educational theory before publishing the book after the war. In this study, I identified two essays that appeared in educational journals during the occupation but were not included in Human Development in Zen. The essays have a different format, but both referred to the historical past in considering the post-war situation as lessons learned. In addition, both addressed civic education referring to the roles of education in school and society. Of note regarding civil education is that the importance of extracurricular activities in lower secondary education was pointed out in one of the essays prior to the post-war paper “Development of Extracurricular Activities in Secondary Schools in the USA.” (April, 1947)
The aim of this paper is to reconsider the roles and the functions of PTA that both CIE (Civil Information and Education Section, GHQ/SCAP) and the Ministry of Education formed in the post-war educational reform period. Previous studies have identified the CIE document translated into Japanese by the Ministry of Education with its undiscovered original CIE document, and they described CIE’s basic concepts of PTA based on the translated document. But my thought is that there was a possibility that it was mistranslated when the Ministry of Education translated it. It was a simple grammatical error, but was a serious error which reverses meaning of the school governing body. First, this paper points out that there is an issue in understanding parents as the school governing body as described in the translated document. Second,this paper arranges the differences in the school governing body in the historical materials about the PTA policy of CIE and the Ministry of Education. As a result, it reveals that these historical materials would not have given birth to this contradiction were it not for the translated document and that CIE would consider that the parents should be responsible for the education of the children as parents and not as the school governing body. Finally,this paper re-describes CIE’s basic concepts of PTA based on the direct responsibility of education. They are the following things. ① The purpose and position of PTA. The first purpose of PTA is to assist the growth and development of children. Parents and teachers share responsibility for the growth and development of the children. In order to assume adequately this responsibility, it was necessary for them to understand what each can do best for contributing to the total education of the children,and cooperate.PTA was an association for increasing this understanding and cooperation. ② School education and PTA. Although the principals and teachers had the responsibility for school education, as for the parents, their participation concerning internal items was planned as the right and duty of PTA. And PTA was an organization for parents and teachers to learn education and the life of the children to make school education better. ③ Adult education and PTA. Through the activities of PTA,CIE had an intention to foster parents (citizens) and teachers as leaders of social reform. However, it was an adult education tied to the purpose of PTA to improve the welfare of children to a certain limit. Those CIE’s basic concepts of PTA would show that CIE had considered the parents’ educational participation through PTA as the essential element to create democratic schools. And such concepts would be consistent.