Online ISSN : 2187-5278
Print ISSN : 0387-3161
ISSN-L : 0387-3161
Volume 76 , Issue 1
Showing 1-30 articles out of 30 articles from the selected issue
  • Shinji TERUYA
    2009 Volume 76 Issue 1 Pages 1-12
    Published: March 31, 2009
    Released: November 28, 2017
    The purpose of this study is to find the alternative idea of Okinawa Education, through description of OOTA Chofu's idea about education for Okinawan People and the idea of 'New Okinawa'. This study challenges the generally accepted opinion on Okinawa Education in the modern era, the nature of which was said to be that of assimilation (kominka). It is necessary to reconsider the idea of 'Assimilation' and the roll of the Education Association in this study. There are already several studies on Okinawa Education in the modern era. According to those studies, the nature of education in Okinawa was that of assimilation (kominka) which forced Okinawan students to have the self-consciousness of Japanese and abandon that of Okinawans, and Okinawan teachers blindly played a crucial role in the assimilation of Okinawan into the Japanese, and the famous statement of OOTA was considered the symbol of assimilation, which ordered Okinawans to follow Japanese in all aspects of life, even the way to sneeze. OOTA was the most famous journalist and one of the most prestigious intellectuals in modern Okinawa and the editor in chief of the newspaper Ryukyu Shinpo (1893-1940). These studies, however, failed to carefully examine the journal Ryukyu Education (1895-1906), published by the Okinawa Private Education Association, which is one of the most important and fundamental historical documents for this study. In addition, these studies fail to understand the difference of Ryukyu Education and Ryukyu Shinpo. Exhaustive research of these media helps us to find the argument for Okinawa Education among Japanese teachers and OOTA. This paper reaches the following conclusion: Japanese teachers on the Ryukyu Education insisted that the assimilation of the Okinawans into the Japanese was the only way to make Okinawans civilized. On the other hand, OOTA Chofu represented the possibility of "Westernization", which caused him to have strong self-consciousness of the Okinawan unlike the claims of Japanese teachers in Ryukyu Education. It can be said that his idea was an alternative way for the modernization of Okinawa.
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Research Note
  • Kazuyuki YAMAMOTO
    2009 Volume 76 Issue 1 Pages 13-22
    Published: March 31, 2009
    Released: November 28, 2017
    This paper has two purposes. One is to define the concept, the thesis, and the view of "National Education" of the National Rally for Educators (Zenkoku Kyouikusha Daisyuukai) in May of 1890. The other is to show that the framework of "National Education" in this rally means the criticism for the Organization of Municipalities (1888). Until May of 1890, the content of "National Education" was unclear, because the Second Elementary School Order (1890) and the Imperial Rescript on Education (Kyouiku Chokugo) had not yet been promulgated. The members of the "National Rally for Educators" discussed the educational expenses and encouragement of school attendance. However, the various views of "National Education" were simplified to "nationalism or individualism". In this situation, the Society for National Education (Kokka Kyouiku Sha) said, "we must educate and promulgate the spirit of loyalty and patriotism (chuukun aikoku)". For this society, "National Education" was restricted to the duty for the nation. Therefore, it is important to research the connection which emerged from these arguments about the relationship between the nation-state and national education at that time. This paper will also shed light on current education, and how the relationship between education and the nation-state is strictly examined.
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  • Kiyoshi EGUCHI
    2009 Volume 76 Issue 1 Pages 23-32
    Published: March 31, 2009
    Released: November 28, 2017
    The purpose of this study is to clarify the development of educational counseling from 1936-1945. Little attention has been given to the substance of activity in the Department of Educational Counseling attached to Tokyo Bunrika University. However, what is important in discussing the expansion of counseling activities is to note the research that members of the department had been doing there. Let us consider the development of educational counseling in this time from three perspectives. First, I present the subject of the Department of Educational Counseling attached to Tokyo Bunrika University. The educational counseling increased in Japan in the late 1930's. This department was established at this time. The characteristic of the department was to give high priority to study. Members of the department took up the following two subjects in counseling activities. For one thing, they discussed the problem of how to cope with modern changes in home life. For another, they addressed the problem of how to satisfy the need for human resources which had been felt in the system of the general mobilization structure. Second, I examine what part educational counseling played in the fiercely competitive entrance examinations. Most clients to the Department of Educational Counseling attached to Tokyo Bunrika University came from the new middle class. The clients came there for advice so that they could have their children take the examination for entrance to the famous elementary school. In this situation, educational counseling played two roles. The one role is to forecast an appropriate course for the child based on intelligence testing. Then, psychologists of the department revised intelligence tests to improve the accuracy of the diagnosis. The other part is to guide parent's perspective on education in the right direction. They criticized the parents obsessed by their own children's entrance exams for individualism, and recommended that their children be brought up to regard social life as important. Third, I consider how to use the research in the Department of Educational Counseling attached to Tokyo Bunrika University. The members of the department were affected by Gestalt psychology, and diagnosed children not only according to intelligence testing, but also according to research of children's growth process and their living environment. The research supported the following two methods to guide parents. First, they treated children individually according to certain factors. For example, they divided factors into hard labor, infant disease and heredity, environment in guidance for the underachiver. In the second place they appealed to parents to take measures to prevent children from trouble because they felt they had discovered the causes for trouble in children's upbringing. Thus they not only diagnosed how to guide exceptional children but led parents in how to raise children who were developing normally.
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  • Yuu KIMURA
    2009 Volume 76 Issue 1 Pages 33-43
    Published: March 31, 2009
    Released: November 28, 2017
    The purpose of this study is to analyze teachers' self-disclosure to students and examines its meaning and function. Most previous studies have suggested that teachers' self-disclosure promotes a more intimate relation-ship between the teacher and students. However, these studies did not investigate actual forms of self-disclosure undertaken by teachers during daily classroom life, and did not analyze the content, context, and timing of such disclosure. This study used multiple methods, combining observations of, and interviews with, two secondary school teachers, and analyzed teachers' self-disclosure based on their in-class utterances. Results yielded the following findings. First, forms of teachers' self-disclosure consisted of four patterns: information, thought, experience, and desire. Teachers appear to make such disclosures in an effort to increase their own 'transparency'. Second, the former three patterns synchronized around the pattern of the desire, which teachers unconsciously disclosed. Therefore, the pattern of the desire was located at the center of the four patterns, and was mutually emphasized by the other patterns. The pattern of experience incorporated a message of empathy to students. In addition, during the analysis of the pattern of experience, it was clarified that the function of transforming students' feelings exist in the teachers' self-disclosure, because it drew a laugh out of a crying student. Third, the main context in which teachers' self-disclosure took place was during ethical training and class activities. Teachers rarely made self-disclosures during classes; however, to crystallize an abstract explanation of the subject matter, teachers would make self-disclosures. It suggested that the possibility of deepening students' understanding to subject matter and supporting scaffolding of their learning. And, teachers made personal and wide-ranging self-disclosures at an early stage of relationship formation with students. This phenomenon suggests that the 'social penetration theory' does not apply to teachers engaging in self-disclosure. Teachers appeared to semi-strategically disclose private information because they judged it necessary for the students' growth and education, an open relationship in the classroom, students' positive participation in the class, and expression of their own ideas and goals freely. In conclusion, teachers' self-disclosure to students had two long-term and potential functions: constructing an open relationship in the classroom and promoting student growth and transformation. It also fulfilled four immediate functions: accelerating student understanding of the teacher, conveying a message of empathy to students, transforming the students' feelings, and promoting student motivation to learn. These six functions acted individually and in combination according to the content, style, context, and timing of the teachers' self-disclosure. To promote the students' growth and transformation, teachers semi-strategically practiced self-disclosure according to the situation. In this sense, teachers exactly "invest the self in their work" and self-disclosure is one of the teaching strategies.
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Series 6 : Present Status in Practical Research on Education
Educational Reform Plan
The Report of the 67th Annual Conference of Japanese Educational Research Association
Research on Special Topics
Special Symposium Arranged by the Executive Board of Directors
Open Symposium
General Report
Book Review
Book Review