After the Resort development Act (Sougou Hoyou Chiiki Seibi Hou) was approved in 1987, there has been a rush of resort development planning all over Japan. Using as an example the Furano-Taisetu resort areas in Hokkaido, this article describes some major legal and environmental problems affecting the local community when resort development occurs. 1. The analysis is based on interview surveys conducted in 1990 of both staff working in the field of regional promotion in nine local governments in the Furano-Taisetu resort areas and some residents living around them. We draw attention to the following four points: (1) A case (that of Biei Cho) involving citizen participation in the process of resort planning is considered to be a model for local self-reliance; (2) It is important for local governments to establish regional organizations of their own (such as an organization involving both public and private sectors) to produce and sell their own products, and to bring about some change in the current marketing system; (3) Awareness of the importance of taking environmental considerations into account will lead to the development of agriculture and rural resorts in ways compatible with the environment; (4) It is necessary to keep a balance of employment between resorts and agriculture. 2. In order to solve resort development problems, which have become both complex and menacing, we must implement measures beforehand and in a unified and comprehensive manner, rather than post facto and ad hoc. Nature conservation and resort development should not be in opposition but mutually cooperative, as they are dependent on each other. While advocating programmes and measures to tackle existing problems, The Holistic view requires an ecological and preventative approach to environmental management, integrating environmental considerations with resort development. As I pointed out in my remarks on law and governmental guidance, existing institutional mechanisms and practices, such as an environmental impact assessment system, plans for environmental control and ecological land-use, are not adequate for conducting resort planning. Local government authorities still need to make more efforts to undertake further environmental assessments as part of resort development. Local governments should establish local environmental programmes and land-use guidelines. In conclusion, an integrated approach towards solving environmental problems is indispensable when planning future resort development. A fundamental part of the solutions must be increased individual awareness of the problems. Therefore, appropriate behavior by the public must be encouraged.
In this paper we explore the actual state of the decrease of the number of factories, in the inner area of Tokyo Metropolis and analyze the influence of the technological innovations of machineries as the cause of this phenomenon. It can be seen that the structure of the variety of industry in Tokyo is not showing significant change, even though the number of factories is rapidly decreasing. However, due to the quick decrease of the number of larger factories, the percentage of small factories is increasing. The analysis shows that difficulties for the continuation of operations are more serious for larger factories in the inner urban area and most of them are related to the acquisition of better production facilities, especially buildings. It is observed that factories which cannot solve the problems at the present locations are forced to move out of the inner urban area. The analysis is then extended to clarify the factors that cause the demands for the renovation of factories. It is found that the advance of the application of microelectronic techniques to machineries is causing the necessities for the replacement of factory equipments. Further it is observed that the new type of machineries require more factory spaces. These observations show that the existence of various regulations that restrict the expansion of factory spaces in the inner urban area of Tokyo Metropolis is causing the relocation of factories from the inside to the outside of Tokyo.
At the end of April in 1990, The Chinese Government announced a New Good Treatment Policy as law for the Shanghai City economic development, which meant the actual start of Shanghai's economic redevelopment. In this paper, we develop an econometric model which contains 31 variables to explain the structure of Shanghai City's economy. The model is consisted of 26 endogenous variables and 5 exogenous variables. As for the estimation method, ordinary least squares (OLS) and Orcutt procedure are adopted. We use the model to forecast Shanghai City's economic structure to be effected by the New Economic Redevelopment Policy and present the results of the policy simulation. This paper examines investment increase which will be brought about by the New Economic Development Policy. The impacts caused by the increasing investment on Shanghai City's economic structure are evaluated and assessed. In conclusion, we find facts that at the present time the investment in energy and communications infrastructure must be given the top priority, while investment balance should be maintained.
The smaller the target region is, the harder we gain time series data for the systems analysis (for example, econometric approaches). Therefore, methods using few sort of time series data are needed for regional planning, especially forecasting. The purpose of this paper is to give a simple estimate of the transition probability matrix of a finite Markov process and to use this matrix for a regional analysis. Consequently, the procedure of estimating this matrix is a generalized least squares method with linear constraints. We make the following brief statement. Where A is an n-dimensional matrix of which each element is a transition probability air (from i-th region to r-th region), xt is a column vector of n elements xit which are the share of i-th region, et is a column vector of n errors eit of t-th period. We will obtain the least squares estimate of this matrix A, when the following quadratic form is a minimum. uhk and λ are Lagrange multipliers which satisfy the following constraints. Where l is a column vector of 1 and D is an appropriate symmetric and positive definite matrix. And we finally get which is the same form as that of Theil-Rey . We used this method for a forecast of office demand in Tokyo's 23 wards. We divided Tokyo's 23 wards into four districts, which are the Central district (3 wards), the sub central district (3 wards), the surrounding district (8 wards) and others (9 wards).
It is often supposed that a local midsize city is one homogeneous area because it is divided by administrative boundary. But there are variuos areas in one city, so we should treat it as one set which comprises many heterogeneous areas (for instance CBD, residential zone, industrial park, agricultural zone, and forest zone). Therefore, there is so much remarkable difference especially in the condition of living environment. I investigated three points concerning the quality of living environment based on inhabitants evaluation. First, How do inhabitants evaluate their living environment? Second, What logical structure exists behind thier evaluations? Last, How does the evaluation vary over space? I got data by sending out a questionnaire to 13, 331 citizens directly via mail. In the questionnaire I asked “To what extent are you satisfied with your living environment?” I tried newly devised methods. I analized 500 m-mesh-data for all. I used hierarchical indices of various aspects of evaluation, which amount to 100 items. The investigation was carried out in a typical localmidsizecity “UTSUNOMIYA-SHI”, with an area of 312, 16 km and 430, 000 people. The result of analysis is summarized as follows. (1) When we divide the overall evalation of living environment into two parts, (one is the evaluation of natural amenities and another is that of “accessibility”), it is mostly determined by the condition of accessibility. (2) The evaluation of living environment can be explained by the function of the distance from city center. (3) Decentralization of population decreases the overall evaluation of living environment. (4) A new concept (I call it “Imaginability”) is necessary to evaluate living environment. That should be placed at same level as natural circumferential condition and accessibility condition. (5) In Utsunomiya city the best place for residence might be located 2 km away from the city center.
Accessibility has been treated in two kinds of expression. The one is as an intermediate variable in location analysis expressed by potential concept. The other is such travel friction as time distance or air distance. The latter type has been often utilized in evaluation of accessibility. To clarify the determining factors of accessibility evaluation is inevitable for urban environmental planning as urban enviromental quality depends on how the people evaluate their environment. A case study was conducted in Utsunomiya city. Utsunomiya is an independent city located in the northern part of Kanto Plain with population of 420, 000. A citizens' opinions survey on the evaluation of their residential environments was conducted. The evaluation system is composed of two major areas of neighborhood environmental quality and accessibility. Each area has three stages hierarchy structure. The evaluation items at the bottom level are the base of the analysis. About 7, 000 samples were collected by the collaboration with the Utsunomiya city government. This great number of samples made it possible to scrutinize the determining factors of accessibility evaluation. Evaluation functions of 22 different travel purposes were determined by using the survey data. The independent variables of the functions are the evaluation of accessibility of traveling purposes and explanation variables are traveling time. The following four points were concluded from the analysis. Firstly, it was clarified that many kinds of accessibility evaluation by residents are explained very well by traveling time. These are travels for daily activities and cultural activities. But, secondly, the accessibilities of such activities as taking a walk are not explained well by traveling time. The meanings of accessibilities of this kind of activities are different from others. Thirdly, the difference of activity frequency influence the evalution of accessibility. The activities with comparatively high selectivity showed that the people who frequently do such activities as visiting parks, water fronts or museums evaluate the accessibility higher than those with less frequency in such activities. Finally, major personal attributes influencing the accessibility evaluation were found through the analysis stratified by personal attributes. These are age, occupation, duration of living in the place, environmental experience in youger age, will of settling in present place, etc.
The paper focusses attention on recent disappointments concerning the limited predictive value of economic modeling. Major events -both international and national- could hardly be foreseen on the basis of our current analytical apparatus. In this context, special attention will be devoted to the implications of the theory of chaos for economic analysis and prediction. Irregular motions in economics are seemingly more dominant nowadays than structural trajectories that are taken into account by means of conventional modeling. In the paper various lessons from the theory of chaotic behaviour for economics will be drawn. It will be concluded that in various cases chaotic regimes are fairly esoteric which are not always based on plausible economic patterns, although on the other hand economic predictions would have to take stability patterns in the prediction domain more seriously than in the past. These conclusions will be illustrated by means of two models, one describing a simple chaotic regime for economic development based on a quasi-production function approach, and another one representing a comprehensive economic system in which technological progress is a major driving force and in which diseconomies of scale and scope prevail. These illustrations teach us the important lesson that in economics much more emphasis has to be laid upon specification analysis and validity tests of models vis-à-vis empirical facts.
Traffic equilibrium problems become very complex when multi-type of users are on networks in which the effects of a certain type of user on other users are heterogeneous. Since transportation cost function on each link in a network should be defined as the vector function, the usual mathematical optimization formulation is no longer useful except for a special case. For such a general class of traffic equilibrium problems, only either the variational inequality approach or the fixed point approach can be applicable. Almost all of the approaches recently developed use the variational inequality approach. Although the variational inequality approach has become the primary mode of analysis in the area of traffic equilibrium and very general. as a model, convergence results for algorithms for solving this general model often impose restrictions on the model that go beyond the monotonicity assumptions required in the equivalent convex optimization approach. This paper presents the theory of a new algorithm for the network equilibrium model that works in the space of path flows using a label and pivot technique in a fixed point approach. The idea of a pivot method that is extended to the traffic equilibrium problem in this paper has been motivated by a classical model of equilibrium in an exchange economy. However, the algorithm presented here is different from the economic equilibrium application in the following ways: (1) We work not on a price simplex but in the space of proportionate flows on path joining origin-destination pairs. (2) An appropriate labelling that produces a traffic assignment equilibrium is constructed. The calculation method is constructed on the facts that the labelling method appropriate to the traffic equilibria is to assign the number of paths available with the highest travel cost to each vertex on the simplex generated by changing the proportion of path flows and that if each vertex of a subdivided simplex has a differet number to each other, that simplex includes an equilibrium solution. Furthermore, the method is generalized to produce accurate solution in corresponding with the requirement of accurate prediction of network flows.
We estimate the management plan of a government-owned forest. Using goal programming method and dynamic linear programming method, we solve the dynamic problem that involves conflicting aims of profitability and protection among different periods. In sections 2 and 3, we briefly consider ‘sustainable development’ for forest. In section 4, 5, 6 and 7, programming model for forest management is proposed. In section 8, we estimate the possibility of improvement for government-owned forest management.
Regional Planning is also called Regional Development, but the conceptional difference between these two terms is not yet clear. This paper describes the concept of the region as the object of Regional Planning or Regional Development, followed by the entire framework of regional planning with the concept of planning itself. The concept of the region in Regional Science is based mainly on the concept as a method presenting region from a subjective view. However, the term region in Regional Planning is something existing on the limited surface of the earth which is a substantial concept itself. The author defines planning region, which is the object in regional planning, as follows: ‘Region is a substantial concept which means limited spatial sphere and its contents, that is, the whole of social, economic and physical phenomena produced by human activities in natural and cultural environments.’ Therefore, he proposes that ‘region’ should be defined as something ‘living’, which is formed by human beings. The concept of planning and development is also discussed in order to clarify the conceptional difference between Regional Planning and Regional Development. The concept of regional planning is grasped, in a broader sense, as an intentional impact of human beings for regional change. In a narrower sense, however, it is divided into regional planning and development. Specifically, regional planning means an ‘objective’ which motivates regional change, while regional development is grasped as a ‘means’ of the achievement of the purpose. Moreover, it is noticed that the term plan means not only ‘future programme’, but also ‘map’. Thus, regional plan expressed on the map has a special meanning. The fundamental framework of regional planning contents is presented as a result of the above discussion. This divides broadly into two categories, Activities Plan related to production activities such as industry and agriculture, living activities and public activities, and Resources Plan or Comprehensive Plan, namely environmental planning, spatial planning, population and social planning, economic planning and physical planning. The framework of each planning is relatively the same relationships between warp and woof. Resources Plan has a special significance for environmental conservation and it is expected to make a total balance among the usage of resources by activities. Thus, regional development should be executed only by being based on the developmental orientation, regional planning, which directs to environmentally sustainable development. Therefore, regional development approach or strategy as a combination of means based on planning is an important subject for us to study.
Interregional payment balances is considered indicator of development and also that of inland trade balances among regional ecomomies, applying the concept of International payment balances. Dividing Japanese regions into four groups-(1) the three megalopolices (Tokyo, Osaka, and Nagoya), (2) their surrounding areas, (3) the borderlands (Hokkaido, Kyushu, etc.), (4) and the other areas-the defferences in interregional payment balances among the group, which are placed in the order of 1>2>4>3, have been found to have recently expanded, although the excessive surplus of the three megalopolices has slightly declined. Interregional payment balances have positive correlations with the averages of income and the industrialization, and negative correlations with the expenditures of the national finance: on the other hand, the averages of income have positive correlations with Interregional payment balances and the industrialization, and negative correlations with the expenditures of the national finance. Therefore, deficit areas by the indicator can be said to have low standards of income and industry, and be dependent on the national finance. The differences among Interregional payment balances show the “inbalanced” levels of the regional economics. We suggest a way for solving the problem of inbalances, pointing out the great need to reduce the multiplier factors with the following measures: 1. lowering “spill-over effect” by reconstructing the economic structures emphasing industries 2. reducing “investment leakage” by improving the policies for hightening economic effects of public investments provided by the national finance There might be specific policies of the government to emphasize on investing in certain areas by casting divided roles to regions, however, the indicator of Interrogional payment balances gives us a criterion on basic judgement for the regional policies.