The mission of this study is to give valuable insights and solutions for foundation factors of regionalrailway commercial sustainability.
For the purpose of the study, we analyzed population data in some station-neighbored areas based onstatistical GIS data (500 meters mesh population data published by the central government), because populationin an area is considered as one typical foundation factor.We also analyzed other related indexesdescribed in the statistical data book.
We focused on three railways ; Shinano Railway, IGR Iwate Galaxy Railway and Aoimori Railway.These railways were transformed from the inter-regional railway to regional railways, because they wereseparated from the East Japan Railway.However, they are still a part of the inter-regional railway network,because of freight train operation.
Main achievements of this study are as follows ; there is a high correlation between the number ofstation passengers and population in the station-neighbored area, but no correlation between traffic densityand population in the station-neighbored area.
On the other hand, traffic density of each railway is decreasing, even though each railway has madeefforts to attract more passengers, especially by developing new stations.Additionally, we also foundthat IGR Iwate Galaxy Railway and Aoimori Railway depend on revenue from freight train operationsincluding government subsidies.
After the Tohoku Earthquake of 2011, converting biomass resources to electrical energy has becomea major focus in Japan. The government encourages local governments to use biogas plants to recycleorganic waste. This study evaluated the biogas and liquid compost plants managed by local governmentsusing life cycle assessment （LCA）, and includes a comparative analysis of greenhouse gas （GHG） emissionswith respect to the economic cost of each plant. For the LCA, the amount of GHG emissions wascalculated by dividing the whole process implemented by these plants into three stages : carrying andtransporting organic waste, plant operations, and transporting and spraying liquid fertilizer. The resultsshowed that the plant operations stage accounted for the highest proportion of GHG emissions. Furthermore,transporting and spraying liquid fertilizer had the lowest percentage of GHG emissions for bothplant types. In terms of the carbon content of raw materials, the GHG emissions from the biogas plantwere approximately 38% those of the liquid compost plant. In addition, the economic cost of the biogasplant was superior to the liquid compost plant.
Productivity of workers differs among the regions involved. Regional economic performance is believed to be largely dependent on the activities of manufacturing. However, most advanced countries have a low correlation coefficient between per capita income and the share of manufacturing. In the 21st Century, we recognize that improvements in the non-manufacturing sectors are needed for Japanese economic recovery.
From the above point of view, I adopted an I-O analysis for the Hokkaido economy, which has a much larger share of service-products than the average for Japan. Two-sectors, the physical good-producing sector and the service-production sector, were selected to derive various characteristics of the Hokkaido economy. The fundamental equation for the divided I-O model is as follows;
The relation of industrial structure and productivity, factors of productivity differences, as well as the role of the service sector activities for the regional economy are determined. Using the I-O analysis, we can see the extent of activity for some sector has an effect on the activities of other sectors. In short, the objective of this study was to determine the roles service sector activities played in the regional economy, especially in terms of the productivity of the region.
In Hokkaido, the service sector has grown faster than the average Japanese economy. Using the above partitioned I-O model, we can show not only that the internal multiplier for a good-producing sector has decreased, but also the external effect of the service sector activities on improving manufacturing has not been significant. These results are much more notable in Hokkaido than the entire economy of Japan.
In Japan, Consumer Cooperatives （Co-op）, particularly the regional Co-ops that supply safe, secure and high-quality food to consumers, play an important role in the development of Japanese food systems. Members of Co-ops participating in the business operations at various levels are also consumers. However, studies on co-op from the viewpoints of both theoretical and empirical economic analyses, especially in corporate governance, are not sufficient.
Therefore, in this paper, we aim to clarify the role of Co-ops in the development of food system in Japan and their dynamics in quality-enhancing innovation empirically from the view of corporate governance. First, we present a new analytical framework for economic theory considering the service innovation in Co-ops and driving forces based on the synthesis of the theories of industrial organization and corporate governance. Next, we will empirically clarify the factors for development of the Co-ops based on financial data and a survey on the members’ consciousness. Finally, we derive policy implications on the roles and tasks of Co-ops in the sustainable development of food system based on the analytical results.
In recent years, various empirical studies based on the theory of creative class (CC) have been conducted around the world. However, research on the mechanism of CCs’ residential distribution and its impacts on regional economic growth in Japanese major cities is scarce, especially from the viewpoints of gender disparity and culture diversity. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to clarify gender inequality in the CCs and the impacts of culture diversity on economic growth of cities in Japan using official statistical data. Specifically, structural equation modeling (SEM) analysis was introduced through constructing the indicators of amenity, tolerance, and job opportunity in addition to gender inequality. Policy implications for sustainable development of cities in Japan was also derived from the analytical results.
This paper pays attention to the problem of measuring impacts of the Great East Japan Earthquake on industrial structure change. We then illustrate “the Great East Japan Earthquake Damage and Reconstruction Indexes”. These indexes are composed of 11 data sets on the production sector and industries sector including agriculture and tourism, life sector and public investments sector. In addition, we use the “Regional Domestic Expenditure Index （RDEI）”, that indicates monthly 4 series consumption of households, private residential investments, private non-residential investments, and public investments. In addition, we compare impacts of the Earthquake Disaster on Iwate Prefecture, Miyagi Prefecture, Fukushima Prefecture, and surrounding prefectures. We show the industrial structure change before and after the disaster, and evaluate the recovery performance. The Earthquake Damage and Reconstruction Indexes are useful for comparing the situation of other prefectures, because they are based on RDEI. The indexes have significance for grasping the damage and reconstruction situation of other areas by selecting series based on the influence in the surrounding area.
Japan is already in transition towards a depopulating society. Especially, the population of Hokkaido Prefecture is forecasted to decline 1.38 million by 2045, a cutting-edge region of the depopulating society. Under these circumstances, each municipality in Hokkaido has implemented various policies that correspond to depopulation. One way decrease depopulation in many municipalities is to implement growth of the population by encouraging migration from other cities. However, important influential factors of migration have not been made explicit and quantitatively-analyzed.
Therefore, this paper targets Kitahiroshima City, which is estimated to have a particularly high depopulating rate among suburban cities around Sapporo City. Additionally, we conducted an attitude survey for families with small children, and gathered data relating to the attractiveness of the city, intention of migration to the city, household income, and distance between the current workplace to the city. We also analyzed important factors influencing migration by means of CS analysis and Cluster Analysis. Based on these analyses, we consider measures and policies regarding the inducement of migration to suburban cities.
Foreign visitors often travel to many destinations and tourism characteristics are different depending on nationality. Therefore, it is necessary to consider differences in tourism characteristics and forecast travel consumption after the opening of the high-speed railway. In this study, we focused on two kinds of foreign visitors from China and Taiwan and differences in tourism characteristics between the two counties was clarified. Using a consumption model considering trip chains of foreign visitors, we made a comparative analysis on impacts to consumption as a result of the opening of the high-speed maglev line in Japan.
In the first half of the paper, after explaining the basic concept and model structure of the travel consumption model used in this analysis, the parameter estimation method is explained. Then, model parameters are estimated using the OD flow data of Chinese and Taiwanese in Japan, and the differences in tourism characteristics analyzed. As a result of the analysis, tourists from China are less sensitive to distance because of a longer stay, and their interest in the destinations of three metropolitan regions. On the other hand, tourists from Taiwan are more sensitive to distance because of a short stay, and they are interested in many destinations in rural regions.
In the second half of the paper, we compare the influence of the opening of the high-speed maglev line on the travel consumption of each tourist using tourist consumption models. As a result of the analysis, tourists from China make more expenditures in many regions after opening of the high-speed maglev line. On the other hand, tourists from Taiwan make more expenditures in rural regions along the maglev line, but the consumption in other regions does not greatly increase. In addition, after opening of the maglev line, especially Kansai and Chubu Airports have improved the access to many destinations including the Tokyo Metropolitan Region. The rate of increase in utility is higher for tourists from China.
For the analyses of climate change impacts, ‘scenario approach’ is frequently used. With the ‘scenario approach’, a limited number of plausible sets of future climate condition and non-climate condition are prepared and they are inputted into climate impact analyses models for projecting future plausible impacts. While ‘scenario approach’ is applied broadly in many impact analyses, it also has weak points. One of them is the relatively small number of scenario sets that can be examined, which often constrains utility of the results for the purpose of supporting policy assessment. For complementing the ‘scenario approach’, ‘impact response function’ approach has been applied in some studies. The ‘impact response function approach’ is a kind of sensitivity analyses with perturbating some important factors and archive the results of the analyses as a database, which could be utilized for further applied analyses.
Social enterprises can be regarded as a new model of modern non-profit organizations （NPOs）. They are working to challenge and untangle the various social obstacles we face today, such as issues relating to the environment and well-being, inequality of educational opportunities, and disparity in income distribution. Although prompt action must be taken to overcome these challenges, governments alone cannot find answers in a satisfactory manner, so social enterprises have recently stepped in and are shifting the boundaries. From the viewpoint of sustainability, to accomplish their various targets, they need to earn money by generating their own business. They also need to receive contributions or investments to continue their activities. Many start-up social enterprises struggle to obtain resources such as manpower, contributions and grants. As support organizations for fund-raising, non-profit organizations and commercial organizations can be considered. The former include NPO banks, Shinkin banks, community banks, etc., the latter crowdfunding, etc. In addition, analysis support using financial data from the viewpoint of management is also necessary to improve the business management capacity of supporting organizations.
In this paper, we examine the function of the intermediate support organization on fundraising. Social finance utilizes private capital and contributes to solving social and environmental issues. In considering cases of venture philanthropy in Japan and issues of sustainable management for citizen funds, hints taken from the idea of actors and tools by Salamon’s proposal, diversification of fund procurement sources and ingenuity to procurement methods are important. How to build empathy for the missions of social enterprises and fund providers is an issue that needs to be solved. For future intermediate support organizations in Japan, it is necessary to enhance and strengthen the function to support not only the current function, but also intermediary functions and to foster and develop social enterprises.