Research and experiments of continuous casting (CC) of steel in Japan were started in 1947.
The first semicommercial facil ies were built in late 1950's with the intention of applying CC to quality special steels to which the CC technology had been supposed to be bestfit in consideration of yield ratio and energy economy. The CC for special steels, however, came to a standstill because the quality requirements to the final products were not fulfilled. Successful implementation of the CC took place firstly in the late 1960's, in production of low quality billets mainly for cement concrete reinforcing bars, where the CC worked as a labor-saving process. In parallel with the billet CC, large-section slabs for rather low grade steel plates began to be continuous-cast, where the CC worked as an energy-saving and capital-saving (enabling omission of blooming mill) process. The slab CC achieved a high productivity compatible to that of basic 'oxygen furnaces but still failed to meet the steel quality required for sheet production. Essential contribution to the development of the CC technology came from practical know hows and improved equipments brought about by above-mentioned industrial operation for low grade steels rather than by the so-called R&D in laboratories. A further development of the CC technology especially in regard with steel quality and comparative-historical consideration thereabout will be given in a subsequent paper
J'ai etudie le rapport, surtout à partir de 1939, entre les institutions académiques, les pouvoirs publics, les industriels de tabac et la société concernant le problème du tabac.
J'ai divisé l'histoire à partir de 1939 en quatre périodes.
La première période (1939-1950) est marquée par les études rétrospectives qui montrent le lien entre le tabac et le cancer pulmonaire. Les compagnies de tabac des années quarante étaient aussi naīves que de recourir à une publicité, tell que "Medecins préfèrent notre marque."
La deuxième période (1951-1966) est caractérisée par les études prospectives qui établissent le rapport entre le tabac et les cancers divers, les troubles respiratoires et cardiovasculaires. Les pouvoirs publics commencent à réglementer les publicités à la télévision et à la radio.
En troisième période (1967-1974), les chercheurs commencent à prêter l'attention aux effets de la consommation de tabac par des parents sur la santé de leurs enfants. L'Organisation mondiale de la santé recommande la réduction de la consommation de tabac. Des mouvements anti-tabac tels que des procès contre les publicités de tabac se développment. Les compagnies de tabac indique la dose de nicotine et de goudron et reduit ces produits nocifs.
La quatrième période (1975-aujourd'hui) est caractérisée par l'attention prêtée aux problèmes de fumeurs passifs parmi les adultes. Les gouvernements européens et américains et l'Organisation mondiale de la santé renforcent la campagne anti-tabac Au Japon le mouvement pour la protection des non-fumeurs commence en 1978. Les gigantesque entreprise multinationales de tabac qui souffrent de rabaissement des ventes se lancent dans l'accélération des ventes dans les pays du tiers monde.
Along with the purpose showed in the preceding paper (Journal of History of Science, Japan, No.165, 9(1988)), in this paper, clarified are the processes of Millikan's determination of the absolute value of e.
It is noted that these processes are featured by the relation to Stokes' law. At this point of view, especially noted Millikan's purely empirical attitudes to the criticism and the challenge from PerrinRoux since Solvay Congress (1911).
These had led Millikan to resolve the discrepancy between Cunningham's theoretical correction term to Stokes' law and Millikan's empirical results. Millikan's investigation of the slip coefficient and the complete law of fall using the oil-drop method brought about the conclusion for his correctness. These investigations completed the final stage of the oil-drop method and furthermore arose the new problems of the kinetic theory.
Controlling his measurable objects at will, selecting the limiting factors exactly, and finally converting particular error sources into the new methods were the elements supporting his active attitude, "independently of theory".
Millikan's "empirical" method was not only distinguished from the phenomenology in early 20th century but also a struggle against it.
These conclusions are essentially opposed to the interpretations by Holton's "thematic presupposition" and Kargon's "conservative mode".
Sapporo Agricultural College (1876-1907), established by the Kaitakushi Branch of the Meiji Government and directed, in s early stage, by W. S Clark, the President of Massachusetts Agricultural College, had built a unique collection of foreign books of physics, significant not only in quantity but also in quality, through the Yedo and Meiji eras of Japan. A thorough investigation of the conserved books (113 copies) and a time-sequential analysis of introduction of them to the College library resulted in the following observations, where the year of publication and that of introduction were assumed to coincide and the whole sequence (1850-1907) were divided into each interval of five years;
1) As for the regional distribution of the original publication, three peaks are remarkable, the first at 1875 features American natural philosophy text books, the second at 1885 English natural philosophy ones and the third at 1895 German lecture series of physics, respectively.
2) More individually, the first peak is represented by Quackenbos * Natural Philosophy (1873), the second by Stewart's Lessons in Elementary Physics and the third by Violle's Lehrbuch der Physik (1892, tr.by Gumlich) as well as other German lecture series. Besides them, noticeable is the repeated introduction of Ganot's Elementary Treatise on Physics (tr. by Atkinson) over the whole period, particularly in 1890's.