This paper has analyzed the path to the reform manifesto "Tokyo Kogyo Daigaku Sassin Yoko" in February 1946, which was a landmark in the so-called "Wada Reform", the immediate post-war university reform at the Tokyo Institute of Technology, named after the then president, Koroku Wada after the World War II. The analysis was based on manuscript records of the Reform Committee written by one of its members, which had never been examined before. The author took interviews from surviving emeritus professors who were members of the Committee. The reform process, from September 1945 up to January 31, 1946, when the Reform Manifesto was adopted, can be divided into the following four periods. I. From the end of September to November 2, 1945 : the Reform Committee, headed by the president Wada, discussed a reforming ideal. They decided to concentrate on the abolition of narrow-minded and overspecialized departments in the first stage of the university reform. II. November 2, to December 14, 1945 : the Committee tried hard and with various means to persuade unwilling faculty members into abolishing the departments. III. From December 14 to December 18, 1945 : at the end of the period, the university finally decided to abolish the departments in the plenary faculty meeting, employing the support of reform-minded junior members. IV. December 19, 1945 to January 31, 1946 : the committee discussed some details of the reform. And the Reform Manifesto was adopted officially in the plenary faculty meeting at the end of this period. The Reform Committee was concentrated on the abolition of the departments to reform the war-ridden university, not insisting on the dismissal of some "undesirable" faculty members, unlike in other universities. The Reform Committee consisted of ten members, including President Wada and Secretary General, represented liberal, even radical faculty members, and they reformed the university very swiftly. They employed the enthusiastic support of reform-minded junior members of the university and passive recognition of politically indifferent, narrow-specialty-conscious faculty who were at a loss after the war.
The purpose of this paper is the assessment of K. HIRAYAMA's study of Cepheid variable stars in Japanese and in the international trend of studying the variable stars. K. HIRAYAMA published four papers about variable stars in 1931 and in 1932, and he formed the contact theory which was one of the non-pulsation theories of Cepheid variable stars. S. SHINJYO, who was the Japanese researcher of Cepheid variable stars before K. HIRAYAMA, published five papers about variable stars from 1922 to 1926, and he formed the eccentric nucleus theory which was one of the non-pulsation theories of Cepheid variable stars. It was interesting to note that those researchers formed the non-pulsation theory after H. Shapley's study of the pulsation theory of Cepheid variable stars in 1914 and A.S. Eddington's study of the pulsation theory of Cepheid variable stars in 1919. S.SHINJYO and K.HIRAYAMA formed these non-pulsation theories in order to explain not only mechanism of the variable stars but also the energy source of stars and the stellar evolution. We concluded that their study of these non-pulsation theories was one of the evidence that the pulsation theory was established during 1930's at which the energy source of stars and the stellar evolution were established.
As a physician and a natural philosopher in the Renaissance, Paracelsus discusses in his works the structure of this world and individual things as well as the human body. All things in this world consist not only of four elements which Aristotle and his followers advocated, but also of three substances (sulfur, mercury and salt) which can be regarded as the offspring from the Arabic alchemical tradition. The aim of this paper is to consider a structural relationship between four elements and three substances form the viewpoint of the "life" concept, which was prominent in the Renaissance. My paper puts emphasis on the following items : 1. Every thing is given material body by just one element, not by four elements, in which qualitative difference can be discerned; four elements do not mutually transform as they do in the Aristotelian theory. 2. Four elements are the mother's womb bearing all things, and give to each of them nourishments for its activity. 3. Three substances are vital activities in the body, not a soul as assumed in the traditional Western thought. 4. An individualization of a thing is determined by both the activity of inherent three substances as a seed and their quantitative and qualitative differences. 5. A creation of this world is a process in which four elements are so fertilized by three substances as in biological fertilization. Therefore, a structural relationship between four elements and three substances is derived from an idea of the generative function based on the "life" concept. Accordingly we can safely say that four elements and three substances are theorized by his empirical thought which has "life" concept as an indispensable ingredient. It is not until four elements and three substances are combined each other that all things become of matter and life. In regard to the organization of a thing, it is not composed of just three substances; three substances do not in turn dominate four elements; rather, both need each other.