The plans for TV broadcasting emerged in Japan when Japan and the US began to negotiate a peace. There were two institutions in Japan that promoted TV broadcasting : NHK, a public radio broadcasting station, and Yomiuri Shinbun, a private daily owned by Shoriki Matsutato. At that time the US was looking for new allies and new ways to block the spread of communism. Then American politicians such as Senator Karl Mundt came to understand that television was a useful tool of psychological warfare against communism. When Hidetoshi Shibata, one of Shoriki's best confidants, found a news report of Mundt's "Vision of America " proposal in the US Senate Congress, he thought that it was a good opportunity for giving a push to a scheme for a new Japanese TV broadcasting. Shibata visited the US in April 1951, met Mundt and others, and asked for their support to Yomiuri's plan. Soon after that Shoriki established Nippon Television Network Corporation (NTV), and invited American TV consultants to Japan. They argued that the Japanese TV system should adopt the American TV standards. In September the Sun Francisco Conference was held for the Treaty of Peace with Japan that led to the termination of the occupation. A report of the US State Department one month after the conference said that Japanese supported the American standards for implementation of the peace treaty and defensive alliance, and by television the Japanese nation would be welded into a democratic ally of the US. With the American standards NHK began its TV broadcasting service in February 1953, and NTV, in August.
In the 1990s, Japan undertook to improve its national measurement standards with a view to assisting the country's advanced R&D programs. I discussed in an earlier paper that this was achieved by the expansion of the notion of R&D infrastructure. This paper shows the importance of industrial measurement standards for corporate R&D, production and maintenance. The New Standard Code revised at the GATT Uruguay Round required the global harmonization of technical standards and conformity assessment procedures. This New Standard Code played a major role in the recognition of importance of industrial measurement standards dissemination system in Japan in the 1990s. This paper considers the establishment of industrial measurement standards dissemination system in Japan for over a period of 30 years. By doing so, we can obtain a rough pattern of evolution of the industrial measurement standards dissemination system : In the 1970s an attempt to imitate the American traceability system was made, but it proved futile. Then, in the 1980s a Japanese alternative traceability system began to take form. A full-fledged traceability system emerged only in the 1990s thanks to external pressures. This historical pattern connotes Japan's backwardness in establishing a measurement standards dissemination system.