In Restoration France 1814-1830, the advancement of industrialization had encouraged the mechanization of manufacturing processes, while weakening the apprenticeship as a legitimate training system for the artisans. In such circumstances, technical books began to emerge as a new channel to technical information. These technical books flourished especially in the latter half of the 1820s. This paper focuses on this "boom" of technical books in Restoration France. By conducting a quantitative analysis of Bibliographie de la France, the publication trend of the technical books will be examined, particularly with respect to format and price. From this analysis, it has be shown that the boojcs which triggered such a boom were the "manuals" -small in format, and moderately priced- of particular professions. These were elementary technical books available to the ordinary artisans. In order for these "manuals" to be actually useful, the contents mainly consisted of "practical knowledge," for each targeted profession. Moreover, in most of these manuals, the use of scientific terms were avoided, and instead, descriptions were given in everyday language. Indeed, some of them went as far as using the traditional measurement system, rather than the metric system. Although the actual number of copies of these "manuals" cannot be determined from existing data, presumably they had achieved certain commercial success. In fact, such manuals continued to be published constantly even after the 1830s, and a few of them became so popular that the revised editions had been published one after another.
It has often been claimed that Greek medical science has its origin in the rational explanation of the world among the early Greek philosophers that constituted their inquiry into nature. However, there were doctors who made an attempt to establish medical science as existing independently of any philosophical intrusion. This can be elucidated through the analysis of the medical term physis, conceptualized, among others, in the well- known treatise in the Hippocratic Corpus, entitled De Natura Hominis (NH). In NH, the Hippocratic doctor criticizes philosophical anthropology and medical theory, which hold that human nature comes into being emergently from single elemental stuff such as Air, Water etc, or from a single humor. His own view of human nature claims that the four humors (blood, phlegm, yellow bile and black bile) constitute the nature (physis) of human body. The human body has its natural powers inherently for preserving health, and, if anything does harm to it, it functions autonomously for restoring its normal condition. In this context, the term physis denotes what determines the normality of the body, in which its humoral constituents remain harmonized with each other. Through the conception of physis, applied principally to the body, the human body will be demarcated as the physical or ,material aspect of human nature, as opposed to the monistic view of human nature, which has not drawn a categorical distinction between the material and non-material.
The concept of geosynclines was born in the middle of the nineteenth century had been a fundamental concept in geology for more than one hundred years. Geosynclines had been understood as the places where mountainbuilding occurred. However many geologists thought that mountain-building forces existed outside geosynclines. Many mountain-building theories as earth contraction, continental drift, etc. coexisted before the advent of plate tectonics. When plate tectonics which was applied to mountain-building appeared, it was regarded as one acceptable theory of mountain-building at first. Therefore the concept of geosynclines did not conflict with plate tectonics in the West. After World War II, the Japanese geological community was involved in a passionate movement for democracy and the members of this political group tended to apply their own scientific theories. In particular, they came to the idea that geosynclines possessed mountain-building forces within them. According to this idea, in the center of geosynclines granite is made from geosynclinal deposits, and it is so much lighter than other materials that it gets enough buoyancy to upheave the mountain surrounding it. This idea, which became dominant among Japanese geologists, was called geosynclinal mountain-building theory. It gradually grew into a kind of paradigm. In contrast, plate tectonics account for mountain-building as a conquence of plate motion. When plate tectonics was introduced into Japan in the end of 1960s, the adherence of the Japanese geosynclinal mountain- building theory therefore did not accept plate tectonics. Consequently, it was not until the middle of 1980s that plate tectonics was generally accepted in the Japanese geological community.