On the presumption that minorities in Southern China and her peripheral countries still conserve ancient papermaking techniques, field and literature surveys were made for extraction of elemental techniques of hand papermaking and arranging them in the developing order from viewpoints of paper science. These techniques are classified into two methods, molding and squeezing of pulp (or plant fibers) suspension. In this report developing steps of molding method were observed and discussed. The author propose that the most primitive technique is to disperse a viscous solution dispersed with plant fibers on horizontally supported dry canvas as observed in Yao tribes. The next step is floating mold in which water pools are provided in several ways. Finally floating mold using a shallow vat with legs made it possible to make paper by a standing figure. Further the sallow vat is improved to provide bamboo bars at the edge for putting frames containing wet sheets.
TAKEBE Katahiro (1664-1739) was a famous mathematician in the Edo period in Japan and was an outstanding pupil of SEKI Takakazu (?-1708) who was an authority on Japanese traditional mathematics. The Enri Kohai-jutsu has been thought to be a book by TAKEBE. One of the manuscripts is preserved in the Hayashi collection of Tohoku University's library (call number : Hayashi 911) and there is another manuscript in the Boso sugaku collection of Natural History Museum and Institute, Chiba (call number : Boso sugaku-collection No. 178). Differences can be found between them. They are especially different in the second half.
In this paper, I describe the process through which Japanese seismology tried to contribute to the development of a new technology, seismic exploration, in the interwar period. Even though the former authority enjoyed by Japanese seismology had been in decline since the early 1920s, the skill of the scientists who had devised seismographs and analyzed seismograms could be applied to the new technology. Seismic exploration, i. e., prospecting for oil using artificial seismic waves, was welcomed as a new way of contributing to Japan's quest for petroleum. On the other hand, some civil engineers who worked for the National Railway adapted this new promising technology for their own purpose, which further disseminated the application of the earthquake science. Because of the cooperation of scientists and engineers, seismic exploration in Japan developed, by the mid 1930s, to the extent that it was recognized as a military science. However, the conflict as to the purpose, leadership, and identity of seismic exploration had been born in the process, which disturbed the unification of the practitioners.