Results of our surveys and research show that most of the scholars of Rangaku (Dutch Studies) and Kokugaku (national studies) in the latter half of Japan's Edo era (1615-1868) gained an awareness of nature in Western science by compromise and fusion based on their traditional Japanese awareness of nature. It is clear that that process took a completely different course from that of receiving difficult and abstract concepts by high-velocity imitation to understand modern scientific theories such as thermal motion during the Meiji era (1868-1912). The points of similarity and points common in the everyday, experiential understanding of nature were recognized no matter whether that understanding was Eastern or Western and compromise and assimilation could be accepted on the basis of that understanding. However, there were logical inconsistencies for acceptance through compromise and assimilation of modern Western scientific concepts such as the theory of thermal motion and modern dynamics, which were based on an awareness totally different from the conventional awareness of nature that existed in Japan during the Edo era. Thus, it is logical that the only way to receive these in the Meiji era would be through wholesale imitation. We could say that in the Japanese thinking of the Meiji era, "imitation was the source of creativity." Therefore, there is major significance of the dialectical development of imitation and creativity from the Meiji era to the process of Japanese modernization.
In this paper, the Kon-ton bun-pan zu-setu by SIZUKI Tadao that is well known as the original theory for the formation of solar system in Japan at the 18th century is discussed in detail. Firstly the analogy with the nebular hypothesis by Kant is pointed out. Although Shizuki applies a few principle of the Newton mechanics, the Kon-ton bun-pan zu-setu is characterized as natural philosopy because it is rooted in the "ch'i " that is a traditional cosept in the Oriental philosophy. By comparison of the cosmology by HON tae-yong who was a practical sciensist in Korea with the cosmology by Shizuki the stage of oriental cosmology in the 18th century is indicated.
In this paper I discussed the Japanese Naval radar research and development program and the mobilization of science and technology during WWII. The Radio Research Department (Denpa Kenkyu-Bu) which was the new radar research and development department was established in Naval Technical Research Institution (Kaigun Gijyutu Kenkyu-jyo) at July 1943. Many outside scientists and engineers were appointed into the a part time civil servants (Shokutaku) who were conformed to the naval 1942's Shokutaku rules. RRD was able to use this rule for their own intention, and some of Shokutaku began to study the basic research of micro wave and basic radar technology, so naval radar program improved to the research and development style. But there was the double appointed problem which Army employed the same specialists. And then, The direction of naval radar program was submitted by Gunrei-Bu (Japanese naval high-ranking officials) using the plan of her military preparedness, so this program was able to be a large scale project. But this program was changed their direction repeatedly because of the war situation and then Japanese naval radar program got weaken gradually.
This study deals with the progress and background of establishing the Hyakukou Kagaku Ka (Industrial Chemistry Course) in Niigata School, the purpose of Hyakukou Kagaku Ka and its curriculums, etc. Niigata School for English-language was established by Governor Masataka Kusumoto in 1872, and it was the origin of secondary school in Niigata Prefecture. Kusumoto attempted to fix and develop secondary education with Niigata School, however, it became difficult to secure students owing to the competition with National Niigata School of English Studies established later. Governor Moriteru Nagayama, newly appointed under such circumstances, established the Hyakukou Kagaku Ka in Niigata School in 1876 with a model of the Seisaku Gaku Kyouzyou (Industrial Course) in National Tokyo Kaisei School with an intention of promoting the secondary education and industry in Niigata Prefecture. On the background where Niigata School and Hyakukou Kagaku Ka were established, we pointed out that Kusumoto and Nagayama, local government officials sent from the central government, had a policy achieving a national enrichment through promoting industry.