Harumi Shibukawa accomplished in 1684 the first domestic calendar-reform, the Jyokyo Kaireki that enabled him to get the newly established post in the Tokugawa Shogunate, Tenmon-Kata, specializing in the calender making and astronomical observation. Though several studies have been made on the scientific achievement of Harumi in modern Japan, many of them lack the synthetic approach to the astronomical knowledge at that time, paying little attention to such points as Nee-Confucianism and the social values in Pre-modern Japan. Jinzan Tani, a Confucian scholar who resided in Tosa and had long been eager to take astronomical lecture from Harumi, began in 1694 to correspond with Harumi in Yedo. He mastered all course of Harumi's astronomy in eight years and classified the correspondence under such topics as the reckoning adopted in Jyokyo calendar, the motion of the seven planets, the measuring longitudinal difference between Kyoto and Kagoshima, the phenomena of solar and lunar eclipse and Shintoism. He also compiled some books or rolls. Analysis of these records leads us to understand how the astronomical knowledge was transmitted in the beginning of the 18th century in Japan. Harumi's lecture covered not only the scientific measurements of the time and space but also the metaphysical importance of the pursuit of universe. Also we can see Harumi was under the influence of the thought of Ansai Yamazaki, who had sterted as a Zhuzi Confucian and later formed the Suika-Shintoism that advocated perfect correlation of the Heaven and the Ground. Harumi's pupils transmitted both the astronomical technologies and the knowledge of the Suika-Shintoism to the people in their home country. They contributed much to the education of natural sciences and moralities in the provinces.
W. E. Griffis (1843-1926) was an American Yatoi science teacher in early Meiji Japan. He had gotten into Rutgers College in 1865. Rutgers College added a new scientific school to become New Jersey's land-grant institution in 1865. And so Rutgers College, the classical course, reformed his curriculum. The new curriculum was called the new scientific curriculum. Because it included new modern scientific subjects. W. E. Griffis was belong to the classical course and studied classics, and new scientific subjects, chemistry and physics, there. He had been interested in chemistry which Prof. George H. Cook had taught in his laboratory. He took the Bachelor of Arts in 1869. After he had decided to be a science teacher in Japan, he took the special course of Rutgers' Scientific School for about a month in October 1870. The special course was set up in 1869. It had two instruction programs for partial students and for students to want to take "the full program." The students of the special course was able to study to do experiments in chemistry by Prof. G. H. Cook. W. E. Griffis seems to have made experiments in Blowpipe Analysis, Chemical Analysis-Qualitative, Chemical Analysis-Qualitative and Quantitative, etc as a partial students. So W. E. Griffis could teach chemistry and physics to Japanese students who had never learned modern natural sciences. The students showed deep in the new scientific subjects. Some of them had been science teachers and scientists. W. E. Griffis was a pioneer of science teachers in Japan. In this paper I want .to discuss the historical background and his modern scientific knowledge which W. E. Griffis contributed to modern Japanese education.
This study attempts to grasp the actual situation of the Hyakukou Kagaku Ka (Industrial Chemistry Course) in Niigata School and also deals with the process and background of closing in 1880, 4 years after its establishment. 56 students were admitted to the Hyakukou Kagaku Ka in total and 17 students completed this course. The main academic subject was analytical chemistry and the promotion of the textile industry and the petroleum industry was targeted. In the Niigata Prefectural Assembly, the closing of the Hyakukou Kagaku Ka was decided for the reason that the major industry of Niigata Prefecture is agriculture and industrial chemistry is not so pressing and students are a few in reality. Local leaders, members of the Prefectural Assembly, who actually promote policy standing between local officials and local inhabitants and best know the community, believe that a policy promoting industry by means of industrial chemistry, proposed by local government officials is impractical and the actual requisite is agriculture. Investigating the situation of the textile industry and the petroleum industry in Niigata Prefecture in those days, we pointed out that both industries were not in a situation to receive engineers who studied industrial chemistry and it was 1900's after about 25 years that these engineers were to be demanded.