This paper is to explain the process of the introduction of nutrias in Japan and the thoughts of various people who were related to it. Since nutrias was regarded as furred animals suitable for the wartime system and attracted the interest of the military, breeding of them was spread rapidly. However, the demand for nutrias furs was vanished by the defeat of WWII, then nutrias were ejected in the open air. At a later time, around 1950, breeding of nutrias became popular once again. But this boom was declined after several years and nutrias were ejected outdoors again because the boom did not expand beyond the stage of speculative business. This fact shows that in the historical context, the introduction and expansion of nutrias was not seen as a problem but even recommended, which is different from today's principle that any introduced species should be expelled. On the other hand, this paper can not confirm any fact showing the argument about the introduction of nutrias had some influence on the argument about what human society ought to be like. However, it shows that biologists have attempted to speak figuratively about nutrias by giving them various names, for example, shouri (this is a homonym of the word that means victory in Japanese) or rumin (this word means immigrants who are forced to wander in Japanese). This fact means that any discourse about the introduction of living things should become not only scientific but social.
The National Science Foundation (NSF) was established in 1950 after a long debate between Harley M. Kilgore and Vannevar Bush. There is no military research division at the present NSF, but at the time both Bush and Kilgore intended to include it into the NSF. The author maintains that scientists' movement by the Federation of American Scientists (FAS) was the most important factor that the military research division was deleted from the NSF. The FAS insisted that the military should not control the Atomic Energy Commission. The FAS also thought that the military should not control scientific research activities in general. The FAS emphasized that scientific knowledge should be used for peace purposes, and considered the NSF as an alternative of military patronage. The military tried to build scientific research systems in close cooperation with Bush. The FAS criticized strongly both the military and Bush. This idea of the FAS was supported by many scientists. The NSF Bill that met requirements of the military and Bush passed the Congress, but President Truman vetoed it. In the process of amendment of the Bill, the military and Bush reluctantly accepted FAS's requirement to delete military research division from the NSF.