Reported here are the results of analytical comparison of books on physics compiled in the Catalogue of Sapporo Agricultural College (1888) in Hokkaido with those of Tokyo University (1881),Gakushuin (1902), Keiogijuku (1906) and Waseda University (1903). Books found to be common to all these are: Quackenbos, Natural Philosophy, Stewart's Physics, Deschanel's Natural Philosophy, Ganot's Elementary Treatise on Physics (tr. by Atkinson) and Todhunter's Mechanics for Beginners etc., amounting to 48 copies in total.
Analysis had revealed that physics education performed on the basis of the book collection in Sapporo, a northern city of Japan, was essentially on the same level as that of Tokyo University, which acted as one of the most prominent educational institution in the metropolis of Japan.
As for the physics education in Sapporo, executed by such teachers as Wheeler and Peabody (1876-1881, American), Tachibana (1881-1886), Kodera (1886-1896), Hirano (1893-1903), Okazaki (1893-1896) and Aoba (1903-1906) of the College, the textbooks of high preference had shifted chronologically from that of Quackenbos, through that of Stewart, to that of Ganot (tr.)
A history of the strong law of large numbers certainly began with E. Borel. But BoreFs result was motivated or influenced by Bertrand, Poincare, Wiman, and the others. The main results for this law had ended almost with A. Kolmogorov about 1933. The study of this law consists of two aspects of the development. The one aspect was to deepen the study of the relations between measure theory and the theory of denumerable probabilities. The other is as follows:
Let p be a point of the interval(0,1)and let p=P1P2P3...... be its binary expansion. Let
Xn(p)=｛+1 if pk=1
｛-1 if pk=0
Then Sn=X1+X2+ ……+Xn is the excess frequency of occurrence of the digit 1 among the first n places in the expansion of p. Borel and Cantelli assert almost everywhere Sn = O(n). The enumeration of sharper results indicated the historic development of the problem.
In this paper, these two aspects are described historically. For the theorem of the strong law of large numbers is not a mere theorem, but the processes of its studies are just a history of the probability theory in the early 20th century.
Hiire, low temperature sterilization process of Japanese sake brewing, was first studied by European scientists in the late 1870's. To their surprise the process had widely been carried out for more than 300 years, and it is now believed to be the oldest "pasteurization" in the world.
The author described the historical development of the process in Japan. Sterilization of sake may have first been recorded by the early 16th century, several decades earlier than previously believed. The process then became popular by the late 17th century and heating temperature was as low as pasteurization.
In China sterilization of alcoholic beverages was first recorded in Beishan Jiujlng (1117). Here two sterilization methods are described, but heating temperature was much higher. The possibility that this Chinese process had an effect on hiire is still uncertain.
Although low temperature sterilization was invented in Japan, hiire was not a perfect process. It was invented as a result of long experience and perception, not from microbiological research as pasteurization. So scientists from Europe pointed out defects of the process and suggested improvement of the equipments and addition of salicylic acid, respectively. It took many years to make the process perfect and the author thinks that hiire is overestimated in these days.