The Mechanica reveals to us some of Aristotle's basic attitudes towards mathematica and physica. In Aristotle's division of knowledge, there seems to be a clear distinction between mathematica and physica, but in fact, these two kinds of knowledge have the common basis on Plato's five mathemata described in the Republic.
Mechanical problems have something in common with both mathematica and physica, for the method is demonstrated by mathematica and its objects belong to physica Furthermore, mechanica relates closely to stereometria which Plato himself introduced in addition to the Pythagorean four mathemata, intending the reconstruction of those traditional tquadrivium, in his Republic.
In the system of Aristotle's demonstrative science, mechanica connected with stereometria treats its object as a 'stereon' in motion. But in his ontology, the tstereon, means 'mathematical solid' which must be capable of perception.
'Moving stereon' means 'moving mathematical solid' and if this is restricted to the natural world, the objects of mechanica are metamorphosed into those of physica.
Considering mechanica in this division of Aristotle's system, we can see the gradual transition from mathematica to physica. We recognize mechanica as the soil from which physica comes into existence.
According to the present investigation, it is found that Japanese "physical books" which discussed the essence of heat hnd disaffirmed the "material theory of heat" since 1872 (Meiji 5) and those books supporting the "kinetic theory of heat" had become predominant and been diffused rapidly.
Authors did not think so earlier. They expected that there were fairly a lot confusions between traditional thoughts in Japan or the "material theory of heat" and the "kinetic theory of heat". It is shown, however, as a result of the investigation that the shift from the "material theory of heat" to the "kinetic theory of heat" had proceeded smoothly and rapidly. In this context, authors cannot help being struck with wonder by the fact that the acceptance of European science in early years of Meij in Japan was done quite neatly as a "thorough imitaion".
The author demonstrates the following three theses in this paper.
1.In his works in 1850s John Tyndall tried to explain the deportments of magnetic and diamagnetic substances in magnetic fields from the viewpoint of action-at-a-distance theories, which were then prevalent on the Continent and had established their own tradition as different from that of field theories. It was, however, in an attempt to provide an alternative theory to Plticker's which was itself an action-at-a-distance theory, rather than to oppose the field theories, that Tyndall carried out his experimental investigations, at first in collaboration with Knoblauch.
2. Tyndall's researches on magnetism were guided by his conception of matter which conceived magnetic and diamagnetic substances, and eventually all substances, as consisted of minute particles.
3. Tyndall's approach to magnetic phenomena as well as his particulate conception of matter were established under the influence of the works by Knoblauch and de Senarmont on the anisotropic features of various substances.
This is a report on a German veterinarian, Johannes Ludwig Janson and his lecture titled "The Animal
Professor Janson, who was on the teaching staff of Tokyo University in its early days from 1880 to 1902, has been called the father of modern veterinary science in Japan. He was born in 1849 in Berlin, and died in 1914 at Kagoshima, Japan.
Janson's lecture "The Animal Hygiene" for suburban farmers, was carried in Chuo-Jui-Kai-Zasshi (Central Veterinary Magazine), Vol.14f No. 8 (1901). In his lecture, Janson mentioned that "Animal Hygiene" plays a vital role in animal husbandry, but it has not been spread sufficiently in Japan. His "hygiene" was derived from a new science established in Europe in 1880's, based on Pettenkofer's physiological hygiene and Koch's pathogenic bacteriology. Janson had introduced itinto modern veterinary education in Japan, while living in Tokyo. Then, thanks to his efforts, animal hygiene seems to have been available for veterinary education and animal husbandry in Japan.
Kenji Miyazawa (1896-1933) is the most popular poet among the modern Japanese. Because his literary works had been incorporated the nature. That is, his views of nature calls forth many modern Japanese responses. And as his views of nature was based on the science on Taisho Era in Japan, we can recognise that his views of nature had included an element of scientific one. Therefore, we may point out that many of modern Japanese whose have acquired science education have scientific views of nature common with Kenji Miyazawa's one.
Now, this study tries to definite the concept "scientific views of nature" on Kenji Miyazawa. Especially, this study analyzes the teaching materials for Kenji Miyazawa's science lecture at RASUTIJINKYOKAI which was his personal association on agricalture. The materials are composed of some fields of science; the outline on chemistry, botanical physiology and some essential knowledges on soil and 49 scientific sketches for teaching.
From the result, on the things of nature which are chemical substances, plants and minerals, Kenji Miyazawa had strongly believed that those all are made up of "ATOM"