This paper investigates a feature of early modern Japanese seismology from the viewpoint of what I call "meteorological seismology." Fusakichi Omori (1868-1923) is one of the founders of Japanese modern seismology. The seismological research of his period has been described by scholars such as Yoichiro Fujii(1967) and Takahiro Hagiwara (1982) as "statistical seismology." In this paper, I would like to focus on the meteorological studies of earthquakes from the late 19^ <th> century to the interwar period, which are not well known. Hoping to contribute to the question of "when do the earthquakes break out," Omori, with some knowledge in meteorology, analyzed the relationship between earthquakes and meteorological phenomena, using atmospheric pressure in particular. His "meteorological approach" had its origin in his instructors' era since they regarded meteorology as their model in both disciplinary aim and methodology. Some of Omori's colleagues followed his tactics seriously even after the Great Kanto Earthquake of 1923, although it is said that after this earthquake there was a methodological turn to basic (geo) physics. I argue that the desire to predict when the earthquakes occur manifested itself in "meteorological seismology" and would like to shed some light on the environment in which this research program subsequently evolved.
In the Meiji era, who were the electric engineers, who developed and manufactured the electrical machines? I have investigated and analyzed these engineers and reviewed the electrical engineering in Meiji Japan. At first, the officers of governments who could speak English, started the construction of the telegraph networks under the instruction of "oyatoi-gaijin", the hired foreigners. After the Telegraph Technical School opened, these ex-students mainly executed these project. Since 1889, many had graduated from "Koubu-Dai-gakko", Imperial College of Engineering Tokio. However, most of them had become to the officers of the Ministry of Public Works or Communications, or the chief engineers of the newly established Electric Light Companies. The manufacturing had started from repairing the telegraph machines at "Seikijo", work shop in the Ministry of Public Works. The engineers here were the graduates of Telegraph Technical School and the craftsmen, who had been mainly the subordinates of Tanaka Hisasige, famous "karakuri" craftsman. From the middle of Meiji 10s, many engineers of "Seikijo" established their own manufacturing firms, which have become the roots of the main electric machine manufacturing companies in Japan. In the middle of Meiji era, the electric technologies were still young, but started the development rapidly by participating of many scientists and engineers, who had high education background. In Japan, the electric technologies were supported mainly by the craftsmen. One of the causes of the big delay of electric technologies is no participation to manufacturing of the graduates of College or Universities.
The Technology Board (Gijutsuin) was established as a central organization for the mobilization of science and technology in World War II Japan. It is well known that the Technology Board gave priority to the aviation technology to meet the Army's requests. The preceding studies have paid attention to the role of the technocrats in making the board and depicted that the Army's requests "distorted" their original plan. This paper deals with the Army's plans for advancement of civil aviation in 1930s. The Army made the plan for "the Ministry of Aviation (Kokusho)" and "the Central Aeronautical Institute". The Navy and the Department of Communications (Teishinsho) opposed the plan from political motivation, so the Army's plan has never come into existence. The Navy and the Department of Communications set up together the National Central Aeronautical Institute, and the Army left out of scheme. To recapture the initiative, the Army asserted that the Technology Board should give priority to the aviation technology, and that the National Central Aeronautical Institute should be placed under the control of the Technology Board. The view that the Army's requests "distorted" the original plan by the technocrats is, therefore, one-sided way of looking at things.
This paper deals with the original Dutch text of a reference book entitled Nyushi Inpu in Seimi Kaiso (1837-1847) compiled by Yoan Udagawa, and also with a critical comparison of abridged translations in Seimi Kaiso and the original Dutch text. Through a close comparative examination of both the books, the author has found out the following facts. The original Dutch text of Nyushi Inpu is Algemeen Woordenboek van Kunsten en Wetenschappen, a Dutch encyclopedia in 8 volumes (1820-1829) compiled by Gt. Nieuwenhuis. The abridged description of H. Davy's discoveries of potassium and sodium by electrolysis with the voltaic pile in 1807 is seen in Seimi Kaiso, where the description originated from the fifth volume "(N-Q)" of the Nieuwenhuis's encyclopedia published in 1825. Yoan Udagawa accurately introduced the concept of the poles of the voltaic pile before Faraday's idea (1833) into Japan in Seimi Kaiso.