This paper, in the first place, aims to make reappraisal to Bernhard Varen's General Geography(1650) from the viewpoint of the interaction of geography with the new science. I especially investigated the role of Descartes' theory and Varen's influence upon Steno. It is certain that Varen was familiar with the texts of Descartes such as Meteorology(1637) and Principles of Philosophy(1644). At the same time, however, he did not entirely adopt Cartesian doctrines but was even critical to the hypothesis of the flux and reflux. Steno, being famous as a founder of modern geology, made transcription from the many chapters of the first part of General Geography in his student years of Copenhagen(Chaos-manuscript, 1659). This shows the Steno's strong interest in the . meteorological and terrestrial phenomena since his early years and suggests high possibility that the Geography of 'Physics and Geography' in his Prodromus(1669, p.5) signified the Varen's General Geography. In this sense, therefore, the book should be reevaluated in the contexts of post-Cartesian theories of the Earth. The Dutch translation(1750) of the Varen's General Geography with numerous Newtonian annotations was introduced by ship to Japan and accepted by the Sendai Clan in 1829. This implies the introduction of the Newtonian theories of the Earth into Japan in the late Edo period, although there has hitherto been no obvious evidence that someone read the book to such an extent to utilize the knowledge. I could also show that the Description of the Realm of Japan(1649) and the General Geography shared the common sources concerning at least to the information of Japan and the Far East.
Nagoya Gen'i(1628-1696) is known as a pioneer of the Koho-ha School of Japanese Kampo. This research examined his medical system and established that his medical theory was based on the following five features : (1) Medical Philosophy, (2) Pathology, (3) Theory of Formula Construction, (4) Theory of the Effects of Individual Herbal Medicines and (5) Attitudes toward Treatment. Gen'i authored numerous books on features 1-4. He emphasized the medical theories in 1, Medical Philosophy, but numerous contradictions were found upon a comparison of the medical works he authored. People of the Gosei-ha School at that time selected a basic formula that suited them from among a variety of formulas and tried to organize their own medical systems on its basis. While Gen'i argued against this stance late in his life, he tried to organized a medical system by combining the five features with the medical philosophy and the formula theory from "Shanghanlun ". Medical studies from his later years are noted as the forefront of the Koho-ha School of Japanese Kampo.
The research and development of the aeronautical technology was relatively independently pursued by various sectors during the Asia-Pacific War(1931-1945) : Manufacturing companies developed aircraft prototypes based upon the Army and the Navy request. The Army and the Navy undertook research works at their own research institutes. When the Technology Board(Gijutsuin) was established at the beginning of 1942 as a central governmental agency for mobilizing science and technology, aeronautical research was selected as one of the major objectives. This paper shows that aeronautical research conducted in the Aeronautical Institute of Tokyo Imperial University and such institutions under the Technology Board like the National Central Aeronautical Institute was strongly affected by the Army's request to the research institutions outside the Army. The Army consistently insisted that the aeronautical institutions should conduct applied research more. Until 1937 the Army had been critical of the Aeronautical Institute of Tokyo Imperial University as conducting only academic research. The institute then accepted the applied research that the Army outsourced to the institute. In 1941 just before the war broke out the Army required the reform of the research. In the Army's perspective, the institutes outside should develop such new technologies as high altitude flight. The Army tried to bring in the new agendas based upon their survey on German recent research system. The Technology Board made the plan for setting up the new aeronautical institutes including the National Central Aeronautical Institute just to meet the Army's request, and the aeronautical institutes under the board undertook these research agendas in a piecemeal way.
During the collaboration of Beeckman and Descartes, the young Frenchman wrote a short treatise on the "paradox of hydrostatics " which comes from Simon Stevin's work. It is certain that Beeckman brought forward the paradox before him. In this note I show its origin in Beeckman's Journal. I follow the sequence of references in his text to Stevin's and find the very theorem of "hydrostatical paradox ". I also refer to the importance of hydrostatics for Beeckman, because he thought a hydrostatical pressure model of the gravitation or attraction which is the central problem in his natural philosophy. At the end of their collaboration they thought falling body problem. This problem must give them another problem about the cause of gravitation. I think that in the course of explaining it they came upon the paradox.