Effects of factors related to self-presentation, such as motivation for impression management, intention regarding self-presentation, and a range of social perspectives were examined in relation to violent behaviors in group settings. Participants were boys institutionalized in a juvenile classification home (delinquent group, n＝194) and high school boys without a history of delinquency (non-delinquent group, n＝204). The results of using covariance structure analysis indicated the following relationships in the non-delinquent group: (a) Intention to bluff in self-presentation had a positive effect on violent behaviors; (b) Intention to be socially acceptable in self-presentation had a negative effect on violent behaviors; (c) Motivation for impression management had a positive effect on intention to bluff in self-presentation; (d) Motivation for impression management had a positive effect on intention to be socially acceptable in self-presentation; (e) Tendency to give priority to one’s own and one’s peers’ convenience had a positive effect on intention to bluff in self-presentation; and (f) Tendency to put oneself in others’ position had a positive effect on intention to be socially acceptable in self-presentation. Moreover, the positive effects of motivation for impression management on intention to be socially acceptable in self-presentation were not observed in the delinquent group.
Focusing on the crime victim policies of the police, which were introduced in 1996 and were later expanded, this study examined how their efforts were reflected in the bereaving family members’ evaluations of the police. 244 bereaving family members of traffic offenses, murder, and other crimes were asked to evaluate the police officers in charge of their cases, with reference to “information provision,” “consideration,” and “investigation.” According to the year in which the incident had occurred, the families were assigned to three groups into which were divided by the timing of implementation of two major crime victim policies of the police; victim policy guidelines and Guidelines of the Chief of the Police Headquarters on the Implementation of Assistance to Victims of Crime. A comparison of the three groups showed that the advancement of victim policies had positive effects on the bereaving family members’ evaluations in the abovementioned three aspects. Moreover, their evaluations for these policies increased the bereaving family members’ confidence in police officers, and through this trust, improved their psychological state and their confidence in the overall judicial systems.
This study examined the types and characteristics of 32 agents who were planted and handled by the Russian intelligence services (KGB-SVR, GRU) in Japan between 1952 and 2015. Detailed information concerning agents was drawn primarily from online newspaper databases. Cross tabulation and multiple correspondence analysis were performed using seven characteristics: age, occupation, content of leaked information, intelligence service, method of access to classified information, recruitment and motivation. Agents were divided into four categories: “self-employed workers”, “self-defense officials”, “government officials”, and “manufacturing company employees”. The characteristics and behavior patterns of agents differed according to category, and such differences may relate to the agents occupation and role of the intelligence service that employed them. Our findings may help counter-intelligence activities and prevent the dissemination of secret information in Japan.
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