This study investigated the function of guilt among junior high school students, and examined the relationship among the function of guilt, degree of guilt, and school adjustment among junior high school students. 596 junior high school students completed a questionnaire. The main results were as follows. In Study 1, exploratory factor analysis of the Function of Guilt Scale revealed 4 factors: “self-improvement,” “reflection,” “arousal of negative feelings,” and “consideration of others.” In Study 2, structural equation modeling analysis indicated the following: (a) the degree of guilt that students experienced in their school life had a positive effect on their function of guilt, (b)“self-improvement,” “reflection,” and “consideration to others” had positive effects on school adjustment, and (c)“arousal of negative feeling” had negative effects on school adjustment.
This longitudinal study examined whether maternal cognition of infant emotions predicted infant attachment security beyond the variance explained by maternal sensitivity. Maternal cognition of infant emotions was assessed by the Japanese version of the IFEEL Pictures, and maternal sensitivity was observed during free play, at 2 months. Infants' attachment security was then assessed with the Attachment Q-Sort on the basis of home observations at 18 months. The results showed that infants of mothers who were more likely to interpret joy or sad precisely on the IFEEL pictures at 12 months scored higher on attachment security at 18 months. Maternal cognition of infant emotions also accounted for variance in attachment security beyond the variance explained by maternal sensitivity. These findings suggest the important role of maternal cognition of infant emotions for infant attachment development.
This study examined children's thinking about geography as evidenced by their causal explanations of industrial locations. A sample of 25 third graders and 26 fifth graders individually addressed three problems involving the geographical locations of dairy industries, arable industries, and food services industries. The children were asked why a certain industry had developed in a particular location. In addition, they were asked follow-up questions to clarify their explanations, pursue causal relationships, and focus on different conditions. An analysis of the children's explanations revealed that as children get older they focus more on social and economic conditions, and less on “pre-natural” and human conditions. Even the third graders were able to explain natural causes for the growth of dairy and arable industries; the fifth graders were able to provide social causes for food service industries. Follow-up questions were effective for children to focus on different geographical conditions. This was particularly true of the fifth graders, who focused on at least one geographical condition before they were asked the follow-up questions.
This study examined career women's change in their adherence to “maternal love” through both quantitative and qualitative analyses. First, a scale for adherence to “maternal love” was broken into two factors (“justification of child-rearing by women” and “sanctification of motherly love”) by using confirmative factor analysis of previous data (N＝1260). Next, investigation of changes in the two factors from the prenatal to postnatal period showed that the score for “sanctification of motherly love” increased post-partum, as first-time mothers and their discourse changed dramatically in contrast with second-time mothers. In addition, first-time mothers' narratives generated some main themes, and they changed in the following contexts: change in their impression for adherence to “maternal love,” evaluation of themselves as mothers, and redefinitions of their careers.