Background: Earlier we demonstrated the reproducibility of paragraph reading time (PRT) as an assessment method in 192 normal voice cases, and also demonstrated that it showed results similar to those of maximum phonation time (MPT) in 52 recurrent laryngeal nerve paralysis (RNP) cases and 15 RNP cases who underwent autologous transplantation of fascia into the vocal fold. The purpose of this study was to verify which components of PRT cause prolongation of PRT. Materials and Methods: RNP was evaluated in 4 cases who were cured naturally without any surgical treatments. Their PRTs could be subdivided into two groups: sound section and silent section. Furthermore, frequency of pauses with breath was counted in the silent sections. Results: Timings of the silent section showed prolongation similar to those of PRT in RNP. However, the timings of the sound section remained the same although those of PRT showed prolongation. In silent sections, increased frequency of pauses with breath was seen as prolonged timing of the silent section. Conclusion: Prolongation of the timing of a silent section in RNP causes an extension mainly of PRT.
This case was a right-handed boy 13 years of age at the time psychological tests were conducted. His IQ was in the normal range (VIQ97, PIQ90, FIQ93), and his ability in phonological awareness manifested good performance. His scores in the Rey-Osterrieth Complex Figure Test and in katakana and kanji writing were 2 SD below those of the sixth grade norm. In addition, he had difficulties in reading and writing English. We applied the Sternberg task to measure visual memory span using random figure stimuli. The greater the number of stimuli, the lower was the accuracy of the task compared with the control. These results suggest that the subject is disabled at learning many figures. It has been reported that one of the causes underlying dysgraphia is visual memory disorders, and visual information processing would have an effect on reading in English. It is likely that fragile visual representation affected English reading as well as kanji writing in this case.
The present study investigated the relationship between chewing skills and speech intelligibility of nonsense one-syllable utterances in Korean children aged 3-8 with spastic cerebral palsy. Twenty-five children with spastic cerebral palsy participated in the study. Chewing skills were examined using the biting and chewing portions of the Pre-Speech Assessment Scale (PSAS), which provides a format with guidelines and scoring procedures for the assessment of normal and abnormal components of pre-speech functioning. Oral movements were observed while chewing food of different consistencies. Speech intelligibility was examined via perceptual analysis of consonant-vowel (CV) syllable production. The study showed (1) a significant and positive correlation between normal chewing scores and speech intelligibility scores, and (2) a significant and negative correlation between abnormal chewing scores and speech intelligibility scores. The current study is consistent with previous studies that found a significant relationship between non-speech oral movements and speech acts. The results of the present study are discussed from the point of view of motor controls of speech and non-speech behavior, and their clinical applications are suggested.
In this paper, the oral reading of two subjects (one in his thirties, the other teenaged) was assessed on the first and last days of treatment, and we examined the data. The two subjects participated in 16 sessions involving fluency skills, such as respiratory control, continuity between words in phrases, vowel prolongation, easy onset, and light articulatory contact. Duration time of oral reading was measured using a phonological analyzer, divided into three parts: reading, stuttering, and pauses. We measured the reading rates using the duration time of the reading part and not including duration times of stuttering and pauses. The two subjects' reading rates were 5.29 mora per second (MPS) and 8.86 MPS at pre-treatment. These changed to 3.29 MPS and 6.16 MPS at post-treatment. The percentages of pauses within reading duration time were 19.4% and 26.2% at pre-treatment. These changed to 46.7% and 38.4% at post-treatment. The percentages of stuttering within reading duration time were 13.5% and 7.2% at pre-treatment. These changed to 0%and 0%. Before treatment, the reading pattern of the two subjects was "short reading part with frequent pauses." But after treatment, stuttering disappeared and the reading rates declined as a result of longer duration of pauses and syllables with acquisition of fluency skills.
The purpose of this study was to investigate whether syntactic structure affects the frequency of stuttering in Japanese children using sentences with relative and coordinate clauses. The participants were 11 elementary school children aged 6 to 11 who stuttered. Ten sentences with a relative clause and 10 sentences with a coordinate clause were used as stimulus sentences. The results were as follows. The frequency of stuttering in sentences with a relative clause was not different from that in sentences with a coordinate clause. Furthermore, we found no remarkable difference in the loci of stuttering between relative and coordinate clauses. These results suggest that syntactic structure does not directly affect the frequency or loci of stuttering.