Olfaction plays a significant role in the percepting of foods. Aroma Extract Dilution Analysis (AEDA) is useful method to evaluate the potent flavor compounds in food. Adaptation is phenomenon that sensitivity to a odor decrease continiously sniffing odor. This paper reviews the sensory evaluation of coffee and black tea, interaction of tastes and flavors and relationship between sensitivity of flavor and food prefere, nce.
In this study, the effects of mood state on taste sensitivity was evaluated in humans who exposed to condition of mental or physical fatigue and tension. Taste responses to quinine sulfate (bitter), citric acid (sour) and sucrose (sweet) were tested. The intensity of the taste sensations were recorded by a computerized time-intensity (TI) on-line system. Subjects performed mental tasks by personal computer or physical tasks by ergometer. Before and after these sessions, the sensation of taste were recorded by the TI system, and in addition, psychological mood state were evaluated with POMS (Profile of Mood State). TI evaluation showed that after the mental tasks, the duration and total amount of taste were reduced in all taste. Furthermore, the maximum intensity was reduced only in bitterness. There were no changes in bitterness and sweetness sensations following physical tasks. However, relative to before the physical task, only the sensation of sourness was reduced by physical task. We also studied the mechanism of the changes of taste sensation by analysis of saliva components.
We conducted a series of survey to find the source of difference in preferences among the U.S.A., Germany and Japan through the relationship between food preferences, dietary habits and evaluation on beer taste. We tried to find a measure to seize food preferences and dietary habits by questionnaires and we unveiled, by beverage preference survey, the degree of importance of factors in consumers' minds concerning both functions of beer in daily life and factors which compose deliciousness of beer. The relationship between drinking occasion and taste of beer was analyzed by the evaluation of taste of beer from the result of a test drinking using the same samples across the three countries. We recognized that there were clear differences among the three countries in food preferences, dietary habits, images toward beer, evaluation on preference and flavor strength of beer after the test drinking. It was made clear that the origin of regional difference in the taste of beer was related to the differences in food preferences, dietary habits and functions that consumers desired.
The relationship between physiological and psychological parameters caused by the stimulation of natural environmental elements was investigated. Sensory evaluation (SD method) and POMS (profile of mood states) were used as the psychological parameters. Autonomic nervous system (blood pressure, pulse rate and pupil size) and central nervous system (EEG) were used as the physiological parameters. The inhalation of vaporized essential oils (stimulation of sense of smell), touching of woods and so on (stimulation of sense of touch) and listening to forest sounds (stimulation of sense of hearing) were conducted. The inhalation of Formosan hinoki wood oil was felt to be “natural" and decreased mood factor scores of “tension” and “fatigue”. Blood pressure declined by the inhalation. The touching of woods(hinoki and sugi)was felt to be “natural and refreshing” and reduced blood pressure. Listening to forest sounds was felt to be “refreshing” and decreased blood flow in the brain. It is concluded that psychological and physiological parameters changed concomitantly.