ABSTRACT The Second and Third Dynasties in Egypt were a transitional period towards the establishment of the canonical offering ritual in the latter half of the Fourth Dynasty. While this period is significant for the formation of a standardized ritual in the Old Kingdom, there are no studies that examined burial equipment from the viewpoint of the offering ritual during this period. This paper shows the actual conditions of the offering ritual during this formative period, through comparing the assemblage of the stone vessels with funerary relief slabs, which may have been a norm in practices related to funerary goods and offerings at that time.<p>
The results clarify that the contents of the cylindrical jars were more highly valued than those in the non-handled jars listed on the funerary relief slabs. Such hierarchical values among oils were also regulated in accordance with the social hierarchy of tomb owners.<p>
Furthermore, certain sets of stone and copper vessels were placed in high-status tombs at provincial sites during the late-Second and early-Third Dynasties. The formal sets found here mainly consist of cylindrical jars, bowls, plates, and offering tables, in addition to the occasional handled jars. These sets were often accompanied by a copper ewer. These sets are similar to the vessel assemblages of the ‘ritual lists’ inscribed on funerary relief slabs. It is possible that the offering sets were distributed to the provincial society’s regional elites by the royal government to promote the offering ritual that originated in the Memphite region.<p>
In this sense, the stone vessels functioned as political media for vertical and horizontal integration in the Early Dynastic society. The underlying specialization and increased stone vessel production were the tools for expressing inter- and intra-regional power relations.
This paper aims to examine the blue painted pottery from Northwest Saqqara, and to discuss changes in production technology of blue painted pottery in New Kingdom Egypt. As a result of this examination, changes in technology of pottery production, especially to fabrics, motifs and decorative techniques, are recognized. This is found from the reign of Amenophis II, mid-Eighteenth Dynasty through to the Amarna Period, late Eighteenth Dynasty. It seems that such alterations indicate the simplification in production technology of blue painted pottery. Specifically, the following changes are observed; the fabrics used in blue painted pottery changes from Marl clay which was difficult to obtain and required higher firing temperature, to Nile silt which was easy to collect from Nile alluvium and fired at a lower temperature. The motif alters from elaborated patterns including graphical faunal and floral motifs and geometrical flower motifs, to simple patterns, such as liner and dot decorations. The decorative techniques change from complicated to simplified procedures. It seems that this simplification in production technology which has occurred during mid-late Eighteenth Dynasty leads to an increase in the quantities and places of manufacture of blue painted pottery in the Nineteenth Dynasty since its production became easier than before. The one of the largest deposits of blue painted pottery from Northwest Saqqara demonstrates chronological changes from the earliest to the latest production phases. The materials from Northwest Saqqara allow us to discuss diachronic variability in blue painted pottery manufacture which has been observed so far by finds from different sites and periods separately. The study of blue painted pottery from Northwest Saqqara reveals that the major changes of its production had occurred just after the Amarna Period which is well known as a significant epoch of history, society, religion and art in New Kingdom Egypt.
This paper examines the concept of “Alid Shi’ism” promoted by ʿAlī Sharīʿatī (1933–77) through analyizing his portrayal of Abū Dharr, one of the companions of the Prophet. Sharīʿatī, commonly regarded as “the ideologue of the Iranian Revolution,” has been deemed one of the great intellectuals of the Middle East. Studies about him have been conducted since 1979, mainly with the object of understanding the causes of the revolution and the background of Iran’s regime. However, most of these studies only look at his influence on the revolution based on a particular set of his works, emphasizing his reinterpretation of the Shiite doctrine to change Iranian society. Consequently, they failed to focus on “Alid Shi’ism,” which is Sharīʿatī’s original conceptualization of Shi’ism. Abū Dharr has great significance in Shiite theology because of his support for ʿAlī ibn Abī Ṭālib. Sharīʿatī, throughout his works, lectures, and theatrical performances, presented Abū Dharr as the ideal per- son. According to Sharīʿatī, Abū Dharr did not separate faith from practice. He followed Muḥammad, supported ʿAlī, denied the existence of social classes, always moved people’s hearts, and thus tried to reform society. This portrayal embodies the “Alid Shi’ism” formulated by Sharīʿatī. In Sharīʿatīt’s view, “Alid Shi’ism” contrasts with “Safavid Shi’ism.” While “Safavid Shi’ism” is establishment Islam, “Alid Shi’ism” is “dynamic Islam,” in which social classes do not exist, and all individuals responsibly make a conscious effort toward the achievement of their faith, ideals, and aims. Moreover, this “dynamic Islam” is synonymous with “Muḥammad’s Islam.” In Sharīʿatī’s discourse, the idea of “Alid Shi’ism” represents the vivid embodiment of the universal Islamic faith before the separation of Shi’ism and Sunnism.
This paper aims to reconstruct the history of Japanese Egyptology from its birth in the 19th century to the work of Seitaro Okajima in the 1940s. Where exactly did this discipline originate, and what kind of discipline is it? By exploring these questions, this paper attempts to demonstrate that the birth of Japanese Egyptology owes a great deal to the efforts of Shogoro Tsuboi and Kei’ichiro Kume. Next, it examines how Takashi Sakaguchi, who inspired Seitaro Okajima, and Kosaku Hamada, who received over 1,500 Egyptian artefacts from Flinders Petrie, paved the way for academic Egyptology. Finally, this paper explores how Okajima, who had studied under both Sakaguchi and Hamada, developed the discipline to a fuller extent, and the governing idea of his works is discussed.