The present studies investigated the relation between subcategories of positive beliefs about depressive rumination (beliefs about the advantages of ruminating and the disadvantages of not ruminating) and depressive rumination. The authors conducted three questionnaire studies with undergraduate students. Based on factor analyses, the Reasons for Rumination Inventory (RRI) was developed. The RRI consisted of four factors concerning the advantages of ruminating (Insight into Oneself and Situations, Preparation for Future Catastrophes, Increase of Empathy, and Prevention and Decrease of Dysphoria), and of three factors concerning the disadvantages of not ruminating (Avoidance of Future Mistakes, Avoidance of Persistence and Exacerbation of Dysphoria, and Avoidance of Negative Influence on Personality and Situations). Correlations among the subscale scores on the RRI and measures of positive beliefs about worry showed moderate validity of the RRI. The test-retest correlations demonstrated adequate reliability of the RRI. Additionally, results of correlation analyses showed that the Insight into Oneself and Situations were related to depressive rumination. All factors of beliefs about the disadvantages of not ruminating were also related to depressive rumination. These results indicated that the intention of understanding oneself and one's situations, and intention of avoiding negative consequences without ruminating were associated with persistence of depressive rumination.
Anger-related problems have been drawing public attention for the last couple of decades. Research and practice have been conducted toward such problems; it is, however, not yet clear that what type of practice is appropriate to what type of children. There is a need to tailor the prevention and intervention program according to children's individual needs. This article describes the importance of the classificational understanding of anger among children, and develops an empirically-based typology of anger for Japanese children, using multi-variables including chronic anger (hostility and irritability), anger experience, destructive expression, and positive coping. Survey is carried out at two points of time, in elementary school and in junior high school, for the same population. Seven subtypes are considered to be appropriate by two-stage clustering procedure, hierarchical and K-means; they are labeled as “Extreme Anger subtype”, “Prosocial subtype”, “Socialized-Aggressive subtype”, “Suppressive subtype”, “High-Arousal Low-Coping subtype”, “Hostile/Irritable subtype”, and “Low-Arousal High-Coping subtype”. Four of these subtypes found in this study show similar profile patterns as the ones in the previous study in the literature. Also, significant difference on depressive mood among these clusters is found. Finally, prevention and intervention approaches for each subtype are suggested.