Studies in THE PHILOSOPHY OF RELIGION
Online ISSN : 2424-1865
Print ISSN : 0289-7105
ISSN-L : 0289-7105
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Showing 1-15 articles out of 15 articles from the selected issue
The Possibility of Philosophy of Religion in Pure Land Buddhism
  • Exploring Shinran’s Theory of Practice
    Takanori SUGIOKA
    Type: Original Article
    2020 Volume 37 Pages 1-15
    Published: March 31, 2020
    Released: July 09, 2020
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS

    Although the relationship between nembutsu (or true practice) and shinjin (or true entrusting) is said to constitute the center of Shinran Pure Land Buddhism, research from the modern period up to the present has focused mainly on studies of shinjin. In recent years, there have been attempts to elucidate Shinran’s concept of shinjin using a psychological perspective on the Buddha’s teachings, or through the application of counseling theory, and this trend is growing stronger. There are very few new understandings and interpretations of Shinran’s Buddhist thought. However, from among these, I would like to focus on a unique perspective that views Buddhist thought in Shinran Pure Land Buddhism as a symbolic act.


    This paper discusses the understandings of the philosopher Yoshinori Takeuchi and the Shin Buddhist scholar Ryoji Oka. Their approaches are used to clarify the characteristics of Buddhist thought based on the 17th Amida’s vow in Shinran.

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  • Based on the thoughts of Soga Ryojin
    Tatsunori NAWA
    Type: Original Article
    2020 Volume 37 Pages 16-29
    Published: March 31, 2020
    Released: July 09, 2020
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS

    In Japan, no Buddhist sect founder is as popular as Shinran today in terms of the reach of his teachings, which has come to be accepted across all different schools.


    In relation to this phenomenon, the writer shall try to seek answers to two key questions: 1) why Shinran? And 2) what is the truth of “Shinran” referred to by everyone?


    With these questions in mind, this paper shall try to uncover a place for sharing between Shinran’s Doctrinal Studies and the Kyoto School based on the thoughts of Soga Ryojin, who has exerted great influence over the doctrinal studies of modern Shinshu Otani-ha.


    Despite being a researcher of Shinran’s Doctrinal Studies, the writer has chosen to focus on the Kyoto School due to the fact that the philosophers of this particular group have come to learn Shinran’s thinking and devised their own line of thoughts through his key publication, Kyogyoshinsho, as opposed to Tannisho, which was compiled by followers of Shinran and is better known by most people in modern Japanese society.


    This paper shall seek to explore “The Possibility of Philosophy of Religion in Pure Land Buddhism” by comparing Soga’s interpretation of a passage called “Sangan-Tennyu” from Kyogyoshinsho against the thinking of Hajime Tanabe, Yoshinori Takeuchi, and Kitaro Nishida.

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  • Masako KETA
    Type: Original Article
    2020 Volume 37 Pages 30-42
    Published: March 31, 2020
    Released: July 09, 2020
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS

    Die Religionsphilosophie des Jōdo-Buddhismus wurde von Takeuchi Yoshinori begonnen. Er versteht den Jōdo-Buddhismus in einer scharfen Spannung zwischen Logik und Glauben. In seinen letzten Lebensjahren erforschte er im Kontext des Jōdo-Buddhismus, wie der Glaube des Menschen in der Welt der Gegenwart sein soll, und zwar ein Gespräch mit den europäischen theologischen und philosophischen Gedanken des zwanzigsten Jahrhunderts führend. Soga Ryōjin sagt, die Bedeutung der Anrufung Buddhas (Buddhānusmri) verändert sich je nach Zeitalter. Jedoch das Wesen der Anrufung Buddhas verändere sich nicht. Dagegen denkt Takeuchi, die Veränderung der Bedeutung der Anrufung Buddhas besagt die ihres Wesens. Takeuchi sagt, wenn meine Anrufung Buddhas nicht der Welt entspricht, in der ich lebe, ist sie keine eigentliche. Der Lebensraum des Menschen in der gegenwärtigen Welt verändert sich stark. Er ist ganz anders als in der früheren Zeit, in der die Anrufung Buddhas völlig alltäglich war. Der Jōdo-Buddhismus ist keine Praxis für besonders Religiösemenschen, sondern für die Menschen im Allgemeinen. Die Veränderung der Welt, in der die Menschen leben, zwingt zur Überlegung, wie die Anrufung Buddhas heute sein sollte. Die Anrufung Buddhas, die seit langer Zeit existiert, verliert in unserer Zeit an Sinn.


    Hat es vielleicht keinen Wert mehr für die Forschung der Religionsphilosophie, die Sutren Shinrans zu lesen? So ist es nicht. Im Ursprung seiner Überzeugung war die Verzweiflung daran, dass die Menschen mit dem Buddhismus, der damals war, nicht erlöst werden können. In der gegenwärtigen Welt kann man Buddha nicht mehr in der Form anrufen wie früher. Daher muss die religionsphilosophische Forschung des Jōdo-Buddhismus zum ursprünglichen Standpunkt, zur Verzweiflung Shinrans zurückkehren, und sie soll von dort her wieder anfangen, nachzudenken, wie die Leute mit dem Buddhismus erlöst werden können.

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Articles
  • en prenant pour fil conducteur la méditation kantienne sur les mobiles et la théorie lévinassienne de la volonté
    Eriko SUENAGA
    Type: Original Article
    2020 Volume 37 Pages 43-55
    Published: March 31, 2020
    Released: July 09, 2020
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS

    Dans sa méditation sur les mobiles de l’action, Kant mentionne l’illusion nommée « exaltation morale (moralische Schwärmerei) ». Il s’agit d’une illusion qui touche au Bien suprême, qui sert de thème capital à l’Analytique de la raison pratique et constitue la première condition du souverain Bien dont traite la Dialectique de la raison pratique. Le but de cette étude consiste à expliciter la constitution de l’« expérience de la guerre » chez Lévinas en prenant pour horizon herméneutique cette « exaltation morale ». Notre objectif final est cependant de faire de ce travail d’explicitation le point de départ d’un parcours qui nous conduira à élucider quelles sont l’« expérience de la totalité » chez Lévinas et la « pathologie de la totalité » chez Ricœur. Dans notre perspective, le symptôme de la phase terminale de cette pathologie est ce qu’on pourrait nommer une apparence perverse, tandis que son premier symptôme en est une exaltation perverse. Tout d’abord, nous traitons de la violence qui fait problème sous le régime de la guerre moderne en résumant son essence comme apparence qu’il faudrait appeler l’autonomie subjective selon l’hétéronomie objective. Ensuite, nous montrons que l’« expérience de la guerre » chez Lévinas peut être entièrement comprise à partir de l’exaltation morale chez Kant. Finalement, nous explicitons la constitution de cette illusion au travers de l’analyse de la corporéité et de la mortalité de la volonté humaine chez Lévinas qui correspond au libre-arbitre (Willkür) chez Kant.

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  • Das Problem der „Interesselosigkeit“ bei Schopenhauers Soteriologie
    Kakusei TORIGOE
    Type: Original Article
    2020 Volume 37 Pages 56-68
    Published: March 31, 2020
    Released: July 09, 2020
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS

    Können Menschen den Egoismus überwinden? Schopenhauers Philosophie zufolge kann das nur ein mystischer „Weltüberwinder“, der sich ohne Interesse beherrscht, obzwar es sehr mühselig ist, so zu sein.


    Nun haben einige Forscher den Weltüberwinder als „tatenlos“ und „negativ“ kritisiert. Aber ich habe in dieser Abhandlung versucht, die Aktivität des Weltüberwinders neu zu erklären, indem ich „die büßenden Asketen“ als seine vorhergehende Stufe des Weltüberwinders interpretiert habe; die büßenden Asketen verzichten auf das Eigentum und leben in freiwilliger und absichtlicher Armut, um keinen Neid auf andere und keinen bösen Willen zu erregen. Allerdings besteht keine Notwendigkeit darin, dass die Asketen zur größten Gleichgültigkeit des Weltüberwinders gelangen. Aber er vollbringt die asketische Lebensweise (Armut und Hingebung). Daher ergibt es sich, dass der stille und unbemerkte Lebenswandel eines solchen Menschen vor egoistischen Augen als „tatenlos“ und „negativ“ erscheint.

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  • A Critical Succession of Nishida Kitaro’s “Philosophy of Action”
    Motonori KITA
    Type: Original Article
    2020 Volume 37 Pages 69-81
    Published: March 31, 2020
    Released: July 09, 2020
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS

    This paper examines the philosophy of “All being is contracted conversely by its absolute empty” by Suzuki Tohru, who systematically developed upon Nishida Kitaro’s philosophy, and highlights the significance of the possibility of the critical succession of “Philosophy of Action,” which was aimed at in Nishida’s later thought.


    After authoring Fundamental Problems of Philosophy - The World of Action (1933), Nishida Kitaro attempted to construct his own philosophy from a “viewpoint of action.” However, there are various problems in Nishida’s attempt to create a “Philosophy of Action.” For example, Miki Kiyoshi criticized “the weakness of the process-based nature of the finite world itself” in Nishida’s philosophy. Although Miki, Tanabe Hajime, and Takizawa Katsumi sought to develop methods to overcome this problem, the construction of “Philosophy of Action” remains a work in progress.


    In this paper, we will show that Suzuki Tohru’s philosophy of “all being is contracted conversely by its absolute empty” can be critically inherited from Nishida’s “Philosophy of Action.” We consider this from the viewpoint of the “Philosophy of action” while conducting a comparative examination of the philosophy of Nishida, Miki, and Takizawa and that of Suzuki Tohru.

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  • Yoko KITO
    Type: Original Article
    2020 Volume 37 Pages 82-95
    Published: March 31, 2020
    Released: July 09, 2020
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS

    This paper aims to elucidate the content and position of the eschatology which he emphasized, and to clarify the features of Tanabe Hajime’s understanding of Christianity, based on his work “Demonstration of Christianity”. The following three points are the characteristics of Christianity considered by Tanabe; (1) Christianity is a religion that carries out social practice in its essence, (2) Christianity can and should avoid the identity which originates from the personal god, who is a existence, by relying on the “absolute nothingness” introduced from Buddhism. (3) Christianity is a religion that has historical concreteness in its structure. In particular, the unique interpretation of the eschatology by Tanabe is considered to be the key concept of his religious philosophy that leads to the social practice he aimed at. According to Tanabe, the eschatology is seen as mediation for the transformation between ethics and religion based on history. In other words, the eschatology is a dialectic that absolutely denies this world, and the structure of eschatology directs humans to change the value of the moral custom and to create new societies. In addition, Tanabe argues that Christianity is mediated by the reason of Marxism based on the dialectics that serve as negative mediation between religion and reason. In this way, Christianity is given concreteness about what to do as a social practice in a particular era on history.

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  • Satoshi URAI
    Type: Original Article
    2020 Volume 37 Pages 96-109
    Published: March 31, 2020
    Released: July 09, 2020
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS

    It is well known that Tanabe Hajime (1885-1962) considered individuals’ praxis as a core concept of his philosophy. This paper aims to clarify the nature of individuals’ praxis especially in his philosophy of religion: “metanoetics” (1944-1953). For this purpose, we have to go back to the works before “metanoetics,” as Tanabe did not explain about praxis in detail during “metanoetics.” In other words, the definition of praxis is formed in a dialectic manner and we need to trace the definitions of praxis.


    “Metanoetics” is a standpoint which emerged from critically reexamining of the “logic of species.” In the “logic of the species,” which sticks to being rational, individuals’ praxis is considered as obedience to the state, especially during 1939-1941. Anyhow, in “metanoetics” being rational was no longer a requirement for individuals’ praxis. In “metanoetics,” individuals recognize the operation of the Absolute which lies behind the historical world and saves them, and regard what exists in society as means of salvation by the Absolute. Therefore, individuals accept every incident as means of the Absolute to lead them to salvation, so that they can react freely to it. Such free reaction is regarded as individuals’ praxis in “metanoetics.”

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