A computerized simulation model was constructed to synthesize the processes of petroleum generation, migration and accumulation under relatively simple conditions. The model was successfully simulated accumulation in an existing anticlinal gas field, and was used to estimate the possibility of fault and stratigraphic entrapment nearby. The geological cross section of the area is divided into a series of vertical columns, which are sectioned into rectangular cells representing successive intervals of time, and the strata deposited therein. Four geological processes are sequentially performed on each cell or on each pair of adjacent cells. First, sediment is deposited in the cell, with its original thickness restored by removing the effects of Compaction (Deposition). Then for each time-stratigraphic unit, the system calculates the amount of compaction caused by increasing time and depth of burial; also the amount of petroleum generated, which is assumed to be a function of temperature (Compaction and Petroleum Generation). Primary migration is assumed to take place when the petroleum saturation of the shale source beds exceeds the residual amount normally present in thermally mature shale. Secondary migration is assumed to result from buoyancy alone; any petroleum which exceeds the hydrostatic trapping capacity of the shale seal migrates into a cell located along some upward path or escapes to the surface (Petroleum Migration). The model was applied to the anticlinal East Niigata Field, Japan, using carefully selected input parameters. Results from the model made it possible to estimate the migration paths and the timing of entrapment in each producing zone under the assumed conditions. The model may also be applied to exploration problems. It was used to estimate the possibility of petroleum entrapment in homoclinal strata near the East Niigata Field under several assumed geological situations. Results of this experiment show that the simulation method is potentially very useful for estimating the possibility and places of entrapment, especially for stratigraphic traps.
Hydrological and thermal structures of the Doroyu area are investigated by using a numerical convection model. The model is two-dimensional and in steady state. The reservoir is confined by a cap rock of constant thickness on the top, heated by an impermeable interface at the bottom, and surrounded by impermeable interfaces at the both sides. The governing quasilinear partial differential equations in terms of stream function and temperature are solved by a finite difference technique. A comparison of the measured results with the calculated results is made about the temperature distribution in the reservoir. The relationship between the temperature distribution and the behavior of hot water within the reservoir is well explained. The average permeability of the reservoir composed of the lower Minasegawa and Doroyu formations is estimated as 5.28×10-3μm2.