The Integrated Ocean Drilling Program (IODP) is a third generation scientific drilling program, which began in October, 2003, following the termination of its predecessor-the Ocean Drilling Program (ODP). Unlike the previous ocean drilling programs (DSDP-IPOD-ODP), Japan is a major contributor to IODP together with the United States having equal status and equal financial obligations. Because IODP utilizes three different drilling platforms, the Japanese Riser vessel, the American Non-riser vessel and the European Mission specific platform, its scientific and operational management is sure to be far more complex compared to the previous programs. Therefore, the leading agencies (MEXT and NSF) agreed to establish a Central Management Office for this purpose. Creation of such an international organization, however, is completely new for Japan. Therefore, the governmental administrators as well as the science community of Japan participated in an interesting series of discussions and actions to establish an international non-profit organization called IODP Management International, Inc. (IMI or IODP-MI). The author had been deeply involved in this practice, and is now acting as the chairperson of the Board of Governors of IODP-MI. This article describes the history and internal structure of IODP-MI and is based on the author's invited talk at the Special Lecture Session in conjunction with the 2004 JAPT Annual Meeting.
The number of tourists visiting Hokkaido has been steadily increasing and reached over 51 million in 1999. While the number decreased to 48 million in 2000 due to the influence of the eruption of Usu Volcano, it again reached over 50 million in the following year. The economic effect of tourism in Hokkaido was estimated at over 1.8 trillion yen in 1999. The development of tourism is a significant policy for the Hokkaido Government whose objective is to increase the number of tourists to 65 million by 2007. The key tourism resources in Hokkaido are hot spring of underground resources and landscapes formed by geological movement that may sometimes cause disasters. Geological studies are essential for sustainable use of hot springs and to develop landscape resources while taking into account disaster prevention.
The global consumption of Natural Gas has been growing for several decades, and it is said that Natural Gas will become the dominant energy in the 21st century. However, in Hokkaido, Japan, the share of Natural Gas in the primary energy supply still remains only 2% and is 5th position among oil, coal, gas, nuclear and hydro. In 1989 Japex (Japan Petroleum Exploration Company) discovered Yufutsu Oil & Gas Field near Tomakomai city, Hokkaido, and 7 years later the first gas was shipped to Sapporo city through the new 14B×74.8km pipeline. Since then, Yufutsu Oil & Gas field steadily expands its production capacities and pipelines. In 2003, the first domestic Natural Gas liquefaction plant was built at Yufutsu by Japex, and Yufutsu LNG is now delivered to the remote users by rail and trailer. The advanced applications of Yufutsu gas, such as co-generation, NGV, GTL, DME, have been carried out. Yufutsu Oil & Gas field plays an important role to open the Natural Gas Era in Hokkaido, Japan.
"Well control" is an activity to keep the static equilibrium between the formation and well conditions, as well as between the wellhead and bottom hole. In this paper, the former equilibrium is focused. The drilling can be interpreted as an operation in which rock mass is replaced by drilling fluids. By this operation, the fluid pressure has to support the stress and formation pressure that have been kept balanced in the original condition. However, there are two difficulties to keep the equilibriums by hydrostatic drilling fluid pressure. One difficulty is that hydrostatic pressure cannot support all direction of the anisotropic stresses. The other one is that two equilibrium, pore fluid pressure and radial stress, should be satisfied at the hole surfaces simultaneously. Then, generally, original condition cannot be achieved. Those unbalances lead to the deformation of solid and stress concentrations, and the fluid exchange between borehole and formation. Both phenomena can cause wellbore instability and kicks. Therefore, it is useful for drilling engineers to recognize how forces by stress and formation pressure act on their wells. At the beginning of the workshop "Well control", we discuss what forces work on the wellbore. Also basic mechanics of porous media, stress concentration, and stress measurement methods are summarized.
This paper presents the analysis methods and modeling results from a post-well study of a lost circulation/flow event in a challenging high-pressure/high-temperature (HPHT) exploration well. The effects of well conditions such as wellbore pressure changes, rock mechanical properties, and geo-pressures are reported. Results from a new lost-circulation, finite element analysis (FEA) model also help explain why various formation-sealing treatment systems (some conventional and others new) failed to reduce the losses into the loss zones. After a new fracture gradient (FG) enhancement squeeze system (FGESS) was implemented, it effectively halted the losses. Full circulation was then re-established to stabilize the well. The well had been losing at an equivalent circulating density (ECD) of 1, 965kg/m3. Application of the FGESS treatment increased the wellbore pressure containment integrity tosustain an equivalent of 2, 037kg/m3 mud as measured by a formation integrity test (FIT). This remarkable improvement in the apparent or near-wellbore FG (NWFG) or fracture re-initiation pressure (FRIP) was achieved along with several other cost-saving factors. A new FEA model is also discussed to help show how the FRIP or NWFG was increased by the FGESS treatment and may predict how FGESS treatments can increase the FRIP or NWFG in future wells. This fully 3-D model uses various types of treatment data and well conditions such as wireline log data for formation stresses and rock properties to calculate a FGESS treatment's higher FRIP or NWFG. Upon re-entry of the well 7 months after the successful FGESS treatment, the seal in the loss zones was still holding against HPHT conditions. This sustained seal reduced costs even more and allowed a liner to be set successfully without drilling fluid or cement losses in the reservoir section of the well. The conclusions of the study can help optimize well plans for future wells in the area, which can lead to lower costs for drilling fluids, casing design, cementing, and completion equipment.
A new technical term, Managed Pressure Drilling (MPD), is getting to be seen more frequently in drilling engineers' literatures in these days. It is a really new technical term and its definition is still under discussion. But it may be deemed to be the drilling processes to control wellbore pressure very precisely. Many of the emerging drilling technologies are classified into MPD. In this paper discussions for definitions of the MPD and technical descriptions of some of the MPD technologies are introduced.
Japex, as the operator, drilled two wildcat wells from 2001 to 2003 in the Southern Caspian Sea. The well No. 1 encountered several drilling troubles caused by abnormal pressure, although various measures were tried, it wasn't possible to reach the planed depth. Technical reviews and study about the various drilling troubles encountered in the well No. 1 were performed for the well No. 2. A recommendation to optimization was also accomplished with Post Well Audit to the well No. 1. After these reviews and study, etc., a drilling plan was revised, and then the well No. 2 was spudded in October 2002, reached to the planed depth and through the objective formation, in March 2003. The exploration goal was achieved. Miscellaneous problems on the wells the various reviews, study, drilling plan for the well No. 2 and the drilling results are described by this report.
Prevention of Blow out trouble is one of the most important issues of Oil Company. Once Blow out happened, it causes of severe environmental impact and gives heavy influence to the local society, or may get serious damage to company management. Many records of Blow out and personal experiences of well control were investigated lack of operator's aware of indicated signal and action were resulted. And awareness not early and action connected to more serious and heavier damage. Then we need to have the best prevention program for earliest finding and the best precise action plan. From above recognition, Teikoku oil Co., built up a systematic crisis consultation program of blow out including personal improvement program.
Japan Drilling Company was established in 1968 and since then has drilled more than 1, 000 wells throughout the world's seas. During the course of these operations it has experienced kicks. However, for a small number of these kicks the actions that needed to be taken to shut in the well were delayed. This article considers why the wells were not promptly shut in, and the kick countermeasures JDC has since put into place.
JOGMEC TRC has held a Well Control Seminar since 1987 and that has a cumulative total of 632 attendances currently. The seminar has been authorized Well Control Accreditation Program (WellCAP) training course by International Association of Drilling Contractors (IADC) since 1999. On the other hands, European Well Control Forum was established in 1992, and it was assumed the new name of International Well Control Forum (IWCF) in 1994. There are, therefore, two major certification systems in the world at this time. However, it's striking that IADC and IWCF have concluded the International Alliance for Well Control Program (IAWC) in May 1997. IAWC is a joint program that is intended to provide a uniform training and quality assured independent certification standard in well control. In this paper, characteristics of each system are presented with a focus on the differences between WellCAP and IWCF requirement. JOGMEC will discuss the future of the well control seminar.
Our group has carried out the various studies and experiments on MEOR process with the microbe producing water-soluble polymer. Based on these efforts, the basic performance and mechanism in this process were well simulated by computation experiment in the previous paper. In this paper, our group carried out the case studies of this process using the computation experiments and suggested the important conditions and its sensitivity of the effect. First, the effect of reservoir conditions was estimated by changing permeability distribution, oil viscosity and oil saturation. The ratio of the enhanced oil recovery by this process was high at the all conditions of reservoir. It should be noted that this process was effective in any types of reservoir without restrictions of permeability distribution, oil viscosity variety. It was shown that the application of this process in the earlier stage of development was more effective because oil recovery was accelerated in the earlier stage by increase of oil saturation. Next, the effect of cultivation conditions was estimated by changing nutrient concentration, shut-in time for incubation and fluid property. The ratio of the enhanced oil recovery became higher by increase of nutrient concentration, but they had not proportionality relation. Therefore, it is necessary to optimize nutrient concentration for target reservoir by estimating the economical efficiency. It was suggested that taking shut-in at least for 2 days was one of necessary procedure for higher enhanced oil recovery. Third, the effect of injection conditions was estimated by changing injection volume, rate of microbe, nutrient solution and injection cycle of the solution and water. It was shown that those conditions must be optimized by considering economical efficiency for target reservoir. In conclusion, it was suggested that the enhanced oil recovery by this MEOR process can be optimized by selecting suitable conditions to reservoir characteristics and by controlling conditions of cultivation and injection.
Subsurface distribution of the Neogene deposits in the Kanto Plain, central Honshu, Japan, was demonstrated by collecting deep wells and geophysical data. The "N.8 deposits" located beneath the Niwaya Unconformity are regionally restricted and make the concealed basins like as half-graben structure. In contrast, the "post N.8 deposits" and overlying Kazusa and Shimousa Groups are widely distributed. This difference in the distribution pattern is probably owing to the tectonic framework before and after the Niwaya Unconformity, namely, the latest early Miocene rifting and wide-area subsidence since middle Miocene.