This study aimed to clarify the factorial structure of technical domain related to competitive swimming performances and to examine gender and competitive ability differences of the composing factors, based on competitive swimmer’s subjective information. A survey composed of 42 items representing 4 hypothetical sub-domains was administered to 500 swimmers, and data from 370 swimmers (age: 20.0 ±1.5yr, years of swimming experience: 13.4 ±5.6yr, years of competitive swimming experience: 9.3±3.5yr) with valid responses were analyzed. Oblique rotation by maximum likelihood solution and promax rotation were applied to a correlation matrix consisting of 42 items, and the following 7 factors with eigen values over 1.0 were interpreted: swimming skill (F1), knowledge related to competitive swimming (F2), swimming experience (F3), rhythm related to swimming movement (F4), conditioning (F5), amount of swimming practice (F6), and training methods (F7). The reliabilities (α-coefficient) of each factor and the total score were high (α＝0.70〜0.86). There was no significant difference in the above factors among different genders or groups of different competitive abilities. In conclusion, competitive swimmers consider all technical-related factors interpreted in this study to contribute stongly to their performances.
The relationship between bone mineral density of junior college students and their dietary habits and regular exercise activity was examined. Subjects were 107 female students of a junior college in Ibaraki Prefecture. To measure bone mineral density of students, dry densitometry method was adopted to their both heels. Also, students were asked to fill out questionnaires to explore their dietary habits and regular exercise activity.
We found significant association between regular exercise activity and BUA. among junior college dietetics students who had regular exercise activity was higher as compared to junior college dietetics students with no regular exercise．Findings show that the more dairy products, fishes, vegetables, or soybean products the students intake, bone mineral density they have, and that the students with strong desire to intake calcium and students who conduct physical exercise regularly have higher bone mineral density than the students without these tendencies.These findings suggest that it is necessary to develop curricula to have female students understand the importance of dietary habits or regular exercise activity for the growth of bone with high mineral density.
Background. Human serum albumin (HSA) is composed of human mercaptalbumin (HMA, reduced form) and nonmercaptalbumin (HNA, oxidized form). We used this“redox state of HSA”as a marker to elucidate the protective effects of oral antioxidant vitamins (C and E) supplementation on oxidative stress during a Kendo training camp.
Methods. Eleven male Kendo athletes were divided into two groups (placebo group, n = 5; antioxidant group, n = 6). Blood samples were taken before and after the 4-day training camp. The subjects’redox state of HSA was determined by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC).
Results. The value of the HMA fraction〔f (HMA)〕was significantly decreased after the training camp both in the placebo- and antioxidant vitamin-treated groups (P< 0.05), and no apparent difference was observed between the two groups.
Conclusion. In this study, the protective effects of antioxidant vitamins against oxidative stress during a Kendo training camp were not demonstrated. Intake timing and intake volume of antioxidant vitamins were considered a factor.
The purpose of this research was to clarify how aggression was related to social skills, and to get some clues to preventive measures against occurrence of bullying phenomena at high school. At the beginning of this research, we inquired into mutual relations between aggression and social skills of 1425 high school students (780 boys and 645 girls). As a result, a great difference by sex was not seen on the whole of aggression though boys were higher than girls in physical aggression and linguistic one and girls were higher in impatience and hostility. At the same time, we found that the higher aggression was, the lower the level of social skills was, and vice versa. That is, without regard to sex, it is important to enhance the level of social skills in order to decrease aggression. Therefore, we have to do so as a preventive measure against occurrence of bullying phenomena at high school through our educational activities. It is a pressing need to establish a concrete support strategy for that right now.
The purpose : This research aimed to evaluate both the creation of an workplace environment in which all female staff members were able to work safely and comfortably, and the development of a Women’s Health Management Support System （hereafter WHMSS）.
The method : When working on this research, the occupational health nurse considered any aspects, such as other company’s state of affairs, information from community health nurses, and surveys of the female staff, when clarifying the problems and issues ertaining to Company A. An OB/GYN specialist outside the company was consulted as an advisor, and research “aimed at creating a comfortable workplace environment best suited for female employees” was conducted from the two viewpoints of health support and the revisions of workplace regulations. The reviews were based on the “Society report concerning the policies on women's health throughout life” published by the Ministry of Health, Labor and Welfare.
The result : Through the development of WHMSS, intra-office cooperation was attained between the Personnel Department, Sexual Harassment Measures Committee, industrial physician, and other supporting networks and organizations. Outside of the company, cooperation between the community health nurse and the OB/GYN doctor was also attained. WHMSS worked effectively in respect to the revisions of workplace regulations, such as maternal health management and childcare support, and nursing support. Concerning maternal health management, which was high on the priority list in terms of regulations, 4 pregnant employees （average age 31.5±3.0） had smooth pregnancies and normal deliveries. In addition, no female employees in their fifties retired from their job.
Consideration : It is thought that this research provided solid information concerning health support issues and workplace regulations. Through this research, in an overall perspective, it is felt that in the future it will be possible to create a safe and comfortable workplace environment for all female employees.
The present study was examined to clarify the exercise intensity involved in a 30-min ground stroke rally using short-tennis racket and ball in different skill levels, and ascertain the usefulness of such activity as an exercise program to improve cardiopulmonary function and achieve proper levels of physical activity. In the present study, subjects were divided into two skill groups: a skilled group of 10 women who had played tennis for 3 years; and a novice group of 10 women who could somewhat continue a rally. Mean heart rate during a 30-min ground stroke rally was significantly higher for the novice group (159±10 beats/min) than for the skilled group (130±9 beats/min). Mean % of V・O2max was significantly higher for the novice group (68%) than for the skilled group (46%). RPE gradually increased after start of the rally for both groups. Mean RPE at the end of the rally was 13.1 for the skilled and 14.0 for the novice groups. Energy expenditure was significantly higher for the novice group (205 kcal) than for the skilled group (142 kcal). The two groups in the present study were roughly comparable to the daily energy expenditure recommended by the ACSM (150-400 kcal). A 30-min ground stroke rally in the present study thus represents an exercise that is within the range suitable for promoting physiological adaptation. In this manner, a 30-min ground stroke rally using short-tennis racket and ball would improve the cardiopulmonary function of both skilled and novice players, and achieve a proper amount of physical activity. However, since rallies represent a monotonous exercise, it listens to the music of the favor or adding different movements may be necessary to make the exercise more interesting.