This study compared body composition and physical fitness, based on a polynomial regression analysis of body fat percentage against BMI for the relational between body composition and physical fitness, in Japanese and South Korean junior high school students. The subjects were 183 Japanese students in the second year of junior high school, and 231 South Korean students in the first year of junior high school. Measurements of physique (body height and weight) and body composition (BMI, fat mass, body fat percentage, and muscle mass) were carried out in the Japanese and South Korean students. In tests of physical strength, items from the new physical fitness test were adopted for Japanese junior high school students, and grip strength, sit-ups, sit-and-reach, side steps, endurance running, 50-meter dash, standing long jump, and handball throw were measured. For the Korean students, sit-ups, sit-and-reach, push-ups, and 20-meter shuttle run were measured. In an analysis of physical fitness among obese, average, and thin body types determined by BMI, more of the Korean students were classified as the obese type. It was also found that in both Japanese and Korean junior high school students physical strength was inferior in the obese type. The level of qualitative accumulation of fat was determined from polynomial regression analysis for BMI, and classified in three patterns: excessive development of fat, average, and underdevelopment of fat. A comparison was made between the Japanese and Korean students in the distribution of these classifications, and it was found that there were more students with excessive development of fat among the Korean students. From inspection of the physical fitness of students in each of these classifications, it is inferred that body fat has a negative influence on physical strength.
Objectives: We investigated the potential of accelerated plethysmography (APG) to clarify the relationship of physical therapy with autonomic nervous system functions an serve as an objective means of assessment of physical therapy treatment. We collected and analyzed heart rate variability data of children with cerebral palsy before and after a physical therapy session and compared these with data of children without cerebral palsy.
Subjects: Our study focused on 9 children diagnosed with cerebral palsy (CP) who attended elementary school at a school for children with special needs and 13 children of similar age who formed a control group with no known disabilities.
Methods: Each child with cerebral palsy participated in a physical therapy treatment session centered on weight-bearing and posture-developing activities. We conducted an assessment of autonomic nervous system activity based on heart rate variability data from APG recordings taken before and after the session. We analyzed the ratio of low to high heart rate frequencies (LF/HF) and compared the results to those of children in the control group.
Results: Prior to the therapy session, LF/HF for children with cerebral palsy was significantly less than that of children in the control group. However, the ratio increased significantly such that, after treatment, there was no significant difference between LF/HF of the two groups.
Conclusion: APG recordings indicated that the autonomic nervous systems of children with cerebral palsy responded to physical therapy sessions such that the sympathovagal balance after each child’s session reached levels roughly equivalent to those of children without cerebral palsy.We believe APG may be useful in the assessment of the effectiveness of therapy of children with disabilities.
The Quality of Life of children with bronchial asthma is believed to have a negative impact on their psychological anxiety, as well as on such daily activities as sleeping, exercising, doing sports, and in their school life. Subjects for this investigation included 66 asthmatic children aged 6 to 14, and 177 normal healthy children as controls. The purpose of this study is to evaluate their QOL based on such items as physical activities, mental and psychological activities, social activities, living environment, and level of independence, using a questionnaire. No fundamental differences regarding basic living conditions could be discerned between the two groups. However, asthmatic children demonstrated significant negative differences in their ability to deal with such issues as helping with family affairs, doing homework, and the number of hours spent in school. In particular, asthmatic children were less likely to take part in physical education and sports due to restrictions in their behavior. Asthmatic children did demonstrate an ability to cope with an asthma attack. These children were dissatisfied with their lifestyle, felt lonely and had a sense of alienation because they had few friends, could not join in with their playmates, or constantly had to go the hospital. Asthmatic children despaired about the symptoms of their disease and experienced physical, mental, and social impairments as a result of having asthma.
This study aimed to examine the relationship between muscle output and action potential amplitude measured with an electromyogram (EMG) to clarify the influence of instruction conditions on the evaluation of rhythmic repeated muscular endurance. Twelve healthy young men performed repeated maximal rhythmic gripping for 6 min. (180 times) under the following two instruction conditions: 1) “Squeeze as hard as you can quickly at the cue of a beep every two sec (Exercise 1: Ex1)” and 2) “Squeeze as hard as you can quickly at the cue of a beep every two sec, and then hold the exertion for one sec (Exercise 2: Ex2)”. EMG was recorded during the muscular endurance measurement in both conditions.
The relative value of the action potential amplitude in each condition to the maximal action potential amplitude at the time of maximal voluntary contraction (MVC) showed a significant and lower value in the middle or latter half of Ex1 compared with the first half of Ex1. However, such a change with time was not observed in Ex2. The relative value of output (%Peak) based on MVC and the integrated area of force (Int F) of muscular output of each condition significantly decreased with time in Ex1 and Ex2. After the middle stage of measurement, the %Peak of Ex2 showed a lower value in comparison with Ex1. %EMG showed a significant and moderate correlation with Int F (r=0.60) only in the first half of Ex1.
Muscle outputs were related to EMG closely in the first half of measurement of Ex1; however, muscle outputs were not related to EMG through the entire time of Ex2. Therefore, evaluated muscular endurance may be different when instructions conditions are different.
This study aimed to clarify the effect of competitive swimming experience on floating toes and arch formation, as well as their right/left differences, in young male adults. The subjects were 100 healthy male competitive swimmers (mean age 20.1±1.3 yr, mean height 172.7±5.0cm,mean mass 67.6±6.9kg, BMI22.6±2.1) and 100 healthy young males without competitive swimming experience (controls) (mean age 20.9±2.1 yr, mean height 169.8±5.8cm, mean mass 63.2±9.1kg, BMI21.9±3.0). The ratio of subjects with floating toes was significantly higher in the competitive swimmer group than in the control group (42.0% vs 36.0%) and there was no right/left difference. The smallest width of the central part of the sole was significantly larger in the competitive swimmer group. In addition,a significant right and left difference was found in the foot angle (angle made by the medial and the outside lines).
In conclusion, a right and left difference was found in the foot angle regardless of competitive swimming experience, but competitive swimming may produce more floating toes and arch formation.
This study aimed mainly to examine composite elements of a physical education class from an awareness of physical education and gender viewpoint. A survey was administered to students in junior high and high schools, yielding data from 1423 students available for analysis. The results were interpreted through factor analysis using the following 7 factors: motivation (F1), enjoyment (F2), teamwork (F3), keeping rules or promises (F4), learning (F5), cooperation (F6), and outcomes (F7). The groups with an aptitude for physical education showed significantly higher values in factors F1, F2, F3, F5, F6 and F7 than the groups which did not in both genders. In addition, regardless of awareness to physical education, male students showed higher values in factor F2 than female students, who had higher values in factors F3, F4 and F6. In conclusion, the groups with an aptitude for physical education evaluate all composite factors except for factor F4 as more important than groups without such an aptitude.
In addition, female students place more importance on factors F3, F4 and F6 , but male students place more importance on factor F2 . Based on the above findings, proposals regarding teaching students lacking an aptitude for physical education or class formation with consideration to gender differences were made.
In this study we examined the aging changes of bone mineral density in early childhood, and attempted to create an evaluation chart that could evaluate bone mineral density in young children. The subjects were 97 boys and 92 girls 3 to 5 years old. Bone mineral density was measured in the right calcaneus using an ultrasound system (AOS-100, Aloka). Linear to quintic least squares approximation polynomials were first applied to the measured speed of sound (SOS), transmission index (TI), and osteo sono-assessment index (OSI), and the trends in aging changes were investigated. Then, to determine the optimum order, residual sums of squares were compared from determined numbers and approximation curves in the linear to quintic polynomials. In addition, AIC was applied and the validity of the order was investigated. No significant aging changes were seen in SOS, but slight change was seen in TI and significant change was seen in OSI. Therefore, significant validity was seen in the aging changes in early childhood in OSI finally calculated using the bone mineral density device used in this study. Then, from application of linear to quintic polynomials and investigation of the validity of those orders it was judged that application of quartic least squares approximation polynomials were valid in boys and quintic polynomials were valid in girls. A bone mineral density evaluation chart was constructed using these polynomials, and age evaluations of bone mineral density in young children were investigated.