This study aimed to examine differences among age-levels of physique and physical fitness in Korean elderly men. The subjects were 1665 independent-living older adults aged 65 years or older (73.4±5.6 yr, 165±6.1 cm, 64.9±9.2 kg) who participated in a national physical fitness test. They took grip strength, 30-sec chair stand (CS-30), trunk-flexion, figure-of-8 walk, and 6-min walk tests. Age showed significant correlations with all physical fitness tests(|r|=0.19〜0.45), being moderate values (|r|=0.45, 0.40) with figure-of-8 walk, and 6-min walk tests. After subjects were classified into five groups by 5 years old, differences among groups were examined. All tests showed significant differences among age groups. Height and weight were lower in the groups of men aged 70 and over than in the group of 65-69-year-olds. The performance of the men aged 75 and over in the figure-of-8 walk, grip strength, and trunk-flexion tests were inferior to that of those in the under-75 groups. The results of the groups of subjects aged 80 and above in the 6-min walk test were inferior to the results of those in the groups of under-80. CS-30 showed a decrease with age. In conclusion, significant age-related differences are found in all physique and physical fitness tests, and the decreases with age in walking ability and leg strength are particularly marked.
The present study aimed to elucidate the relationship between the burnout of practitioners of dementia care and improvement of the environment for the elderly with dementia. To do so, a questionnaire survey was administered to dementia care staff from geriatric health service facilities. The number of valid responses from nurses was 43 (86.0%) and 44 (88.0%) from care workers, respectively. For nurses, it was found that “products and technology” was related to “emotional exhaustion” and “personal accomplishment.” In addition, “natural environment and human-made changes to environment” were related to “emotional exhaustion” and “depersonalization” for nurses, and to “emotional exhaustion” for care workers. In contrast, “support and relationships” was not related to any item for either nurses or care workers. Furthermore, for both nurses and care workers, “attitudes” was related to “emotional exhaustion,” “depersonalization,” and “personal accomplishment.” Finally, “services, systems, and policies” was related to “personal accomplishment” for nurses, while it was associated with “emotional exhaustion” for care workers. In the support of education, to decrease burnout among those who engage in the care of the elderly with dementia, differences in recognition between nurses and care workers must be considered.
The purpose of this study was to examine the influences of back plate width on the starting operation in competitive swimming, by using three-dimensional (3D) analysis. This study included 12 male university student swimmers, who usually use the kick-start technique. We filmed the kick-start operation by using three high-speed cameras (300 scenes; shutter speed: 1/500 s). The 3D coordinates of 21 points on each subject’s body were examined by using direct linear transformation. The subjects were instructed to perform the kick start on back plates of different widths: typical width (Normal), narrower than Normal (Narrow), and wider than Normal (Wide).
During the preparation phase, there were significant differences between both Narrow and Normal and Narrow and Wide in the horizontal distance of the center of gravity. During the horizontal acceleration phase, there were significant differences between Normal and Wide. There were significant differences between Narrow and Normal in the horizontal velocity of flight. In addition, take-off at Normal tended to be faster than Narrow and Wide in the horizontal velocity of center of gravity.
During the preparation phase, it was thought that the horizontal distance of the center of gravity reduces as the width of the back plate increases. Additionally, it was suggested that acceleration and velocity in the horizontal direction decrease when the width of the back plate is set different of Normal.
Curcumin, from turmeric, has been investigated for its anti-inflammatory activity. We investigated the effects of giving the curcumin on delayed onset muscle soreness and muscle function following eccentric exercise. We used a randomized, double-blinded, placebo-controlled, crossover trial with two 8-day testing phases and a 3-month washout period. Ten healthy male subjects performed two bouts of eccentric exercise involving elbow flexion (6 sets of 4 repetitions) 30 min after curcumin (150 mg) or placebo was given. Perceived muscle soreness, maximal voluntary isometric elbow flexor strength, elbow range of motion (ROM), and upper arm circumference were assessed before, immediately post (0), 24, 48, 72, and 96 h following exercise. All parameters changed significantly (p<0.05) in both groups at 0 h. There was significantly (p<0.05) less perceived muscle soreness and higher maximal isometric strength in the curcumin group compared with the placebo group after 48, 72, and 96 h. There was a significant (p<0.05) smaller reduction in elbow ROM in the curcumin group compared with the placebo group at 0, 24, 48, 72, and 96 h. No differences were observed in upper arm circumference. This suggests that curcumin can alleviate muscle soreness and enhance muscle recovery after exercise-induced muscle damage.
The aim of this study was to elucidate the effect of tightrope walking exercise, performed for 2 min a week for 2 weeks, on the tightrope walking distance, total locus length, unit locus length, unit area locus length, and environmental area.
Subjects were 12 healthy males (age: 23.8 ± 4.6 years). For balance exercises, we attached a 400 cm-long tightrope at a height of 30 cm to a rack and tested the setup by traversing the tightrope for 2 min barefoot to ensure that there was no chance of slipping. Tightrope walking exercises were performed once a week for 2 weeks. Comparisons of the values from before and after the exercise period were done using a paired t-test. The level of significance was set at p<0.05.
Tightrope walking distances increased significantly (p<0.05) from 219 ± 71 cm to 424 ± 210 cm following 2 weeks of tightrope walking exercise. During two-legged standing with the eyes closed, the total locus length and unit locus length significantly decreased. During one-legged standing on the right leg with the eyes closed, a significant decrease was observed in both the total locus length and unit locus length. During one-legged standing on the left leg with the eyes open, unit area locus length significantly decreased.
The present study was conducted at 10 geriatric health services facilities and included the elderly with dementia whose entire lives required careful observation. We administered a field survey to the elderly with dementia for approximately one month after they had entered the facilities using the abridged version of the support standards for the behavioral and psychological symptoms of dementia (BPSD), which consisted of four items: “irritability and excitement”; “drug refusal, refusal of food, and rejection”; “act of aggression (violence)”; and “unhygienic behavior.” A relationship between the difficulty and care domains was often observed for these items. However, “unhygienic behavior” in the difficulty domain was exclusively related to “irritability and excitement” in the difficulty domain, and “drug refusal, refusal of food, and rejection” in the care domain was exclusively related to “act of aggression (violence)” in the care domain. In addition, appropriate toileting support was considered effective in decreasing the frequency of “unhygienic behavior” in the care domain. With respect to “drug refusal, refusal of food, and rejection” and “act of aggression (violence)” in the care domain, it was important to provide dementia care while considering the patient as an individual. These results suggest that training care staff members at geriatric health services facilities to provide dementia care as part of a team using a unified care method could improve their ability to cope with BPSD in the elderly with dementia.
This study was designed to examine the reliability of the muscle cramp test in 113 healthy young men (age: 21.7 ± 2.7 yrs, height: 171.9 ± 6.1 cm, weight: 64.7 ± 9.1 kg) who had high and low frequency of muscle cramps in daily life and who had or had not experienced cramps in the hamstrings. To assess the reliability of the cramp test, 56 of the 113 subjects were measured on three occasions separated by at least one week. The occurrence of muscle cramp in the knee flexors in the cramp test was greater in subjects who had higher frequency of muscle cramp and those who had experienced muscle cramp in the hamstrings (P < 0.05). The presence or absence of muscle cramp in the cramp test was reproducible on three occasions for 54 of the 56 subjects. These results suggest that the cramp test is a reliable method for examining susceptibility to muscle cramp, and the occurrence of muscle cramp in the test is affected by the frequency of muscle cramp in daily life and whether or not one has experience cramps in the hamstrings.