In this study, we investigated what are the notable points of a nutrition education for pregnant women, by performing nutrition assessment. The subjects were 29 pregnant women (mean age： 30.5±5.7) recruited from a prenatal clinic in Shizuoka. We investigated the changes in body weight, anemia, lifestyle, food intake, and the consideration concerning meal, during the pregnancy period. During the investigation, we performed individual nutrition education. We found that Calcium, iron and folic acid were less than the recommended quantities for being taken, and the 55％ of the pregnant women had anemia in the pregnancy period. The increase in body weight and the sufficient vitamin C in the pregnant period were positively related to the weight of new born baby, and oppositely, salt intake was negatively related. As for the consideration concerning meal, in the early stage of pregnant, the ratios of both indifferent period and concern period were high. However, it shifted to the action period and the maintenance period later. It is necessary to guide pregnant women by noting more minerals and vitamins and less salt. In addition, more concrete guidance is hoped for.
Determination of the adequate number of movement repetitions for the evaluation of physical function in the elderly is required to establish a leg muscle function test using ground reaction force during sit-to-stand (STS) movement. Conducting STS movements repeatedly may impose a larger physical burden on the elderly and induce their joint disability. A lower repetition number is suitable for the elderly. This study aimed to examine the relationships among ground reaction forces during single and repeated STS movements and physical fitness tests. Nineteen healthy female elderly conducted both STS tests and physical fitness tests developed by the Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology. Subjects performed an STS movement or 5-consecutive movements as fast as possible. Five parameters regarding stomping force and movement speed were calculated using time course data of ground reaction force during both STS movement. The parameters during each STS movement and the sum of 5 repetitions for the repeated STS test were used for analysis. Significant and moderate correlations were found in the peak values of the ground reaction force, impulse rate and maximal rate of force development between the single STS test and the repeated STS test (r = 0.76-0.78). Significant and moderate correlations between performances of both of the above tests and each movement of the latter repeated STS test were found in all parameters except for achieving time and impulse rate per unit time. Correlations between the peak value of the ground reaction force and the maximal rate of force development in both STS tests and sit-ups and 10-m barricade walking physical fitness tests were significant and moderate (ǀ r ǀ = 0.47-0.72). In conclusion, the relationships between both STS tests were relatively high, and they showed similar relationships with physical fitness tests. Thus, a single STS test can evaluate similar physical functions as the repeated STS test. Due to the light physical burden, it may be desirable to use the single STS test to evaluate leg function of the elderly.
Seiza is one of the most commonly used sitting postures in various enrichment lessons of Japanese origin. Because Seiza blocks blood flow in lower limbs and induces sensory palaysis, it may results in a staggered walk or a fall accident. This study aimed to examine the influence of Seiza on tissue oxygenation kinetics in the lower limbs, the proprioceptive sensation threshold, and gait.
Ten male and 10 female healthy young adults were asked to walk before and after sitting in a Seiza position. Participants walked on a level and straight 10m-walkway before Seiza, just after increasing their proprioceptive sensaion threshold of their plantar muscles due to Seiza, 5 min and 10 min after Seiza.
Tissue oxygenation in the lateral soleus muscle and plantar proprioceptive sensation threshold were measured during Seiza. Oxygenated hemoglobin(Hb)/myoglobin(Mb) decreased and deoxygenated Hb/Mb increased just after the onset of Seiza and reached a plateau within about 3 – 5 min. After blood stasis in the lower limbs was maintained for about 18 min, the proprioceptive sensation threshold of plantar muscles increased. Just after and 5min after the Seiza, stride and gait velocity decreased compared with before assuming the Seiza posture.
About 10 min rest may be necessary to decrease a risk of falling due to abnormal gait induced by Seiza.
This study examined differences as well as relationships among postural control characteristics during a bipedal stance, operating-leg stance, and supporting-leg stance in 10 soccer player and 10 untrained people. The center of pressure measurements were conducted after taking sufficient rest. The subjects were instructed to stand on a footprint painted on the stabilometer while closely looking at a fixed view point in front of them. They were instructed to stand on the stabilometer and to keep a Romberg’s posture with their hands on their waist during bipedal stance, and the subjects were instructed to stand, lifting one side leg before the other side leg during this one-leg stance. In the soccer players and untrained people, the postural control characteristics during standing hardly differ between operating leg and supporting leg stances, but markedly differ between bipedal stance and one-leg stance. The results demonstrated that the soccer players are superior to untrained people in anterior-posterior postural stability during one leg stance.
This study aimed to examine changes of the physical fitness of third grade male students enrolled in the National College of Technology after 1985. A total of 3,241 males took a physical fitness test that included 4 physique and 12 physical fitness and motor ability tests developed by the Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports Science, and Technology of Japan. Data of 2,611 males who participated in all tests were used for analysis. To examine the annual change over 20 years, single regression analysis and a test of mean difference (t-test) between the first (1985 - 1989) and last (2000 - 2004) periods were performed.
Although there was no large difference in physique (growth in length and mass) between both periods, the proportion of students with a tendency for obesity was significantly higher in the last period. Muscular strength, muscular power, flexibility, muscular endurance, and cardiorespiratory endurance (overall physical fitness except for agility) decreased with time. Male students at the National College of Technology should make efforts to control the incidence of obesity and to improve their physical fitness.
In order to increase the national presence of Japanese football, it is necessary to first understand the current prevalence. While it has been said that the prevalence of football varies considerably across the country, it has not been examined objectively. This study aimed to analyze the ratio of the number of football players, teams, and referees of each prefecture to the total population based on data published by the Japan Football Association.
The total population, the number of football players, teams, referees, and high grade referees differed among each prefecture, and the three prefectures of Akita, Nara, and Wakayama were lower in the ratio of football players and teams to total population than the other prefectures. In addition, the number of teams showed a very high relationship (r=0.91) with the number of players and moderately-high relationships (r=0.70 and 0.73) with the referees. The relationships of the number of referees and high grade referees and of players and the number of both types of referees were moderate(r=0.55-0.68).
From the present results, the prevalence of football differs among each prefecture and is lowest in the three prefectures of Akita, Nara, and Wakayama. The number of football referees is closely related to the prevalence of football.