The pegboard and moving beans with tweezers tests have been used for rehabilitation of nervous system disorders. However, the number of trials used in studies has varied and the practice effect of repeated trials has not been examined extensively. This study aimed to examine the practice effect and laterality of the moving beans test with tweezers and pegboard test. Twenty healthy men and women participated in the experiment. The subjects performed both tests for 10 30-sec trials with each hand. A two-way analysis of variance showed a significant difference among trials and the dominant/non-dominant hands in both tests, and the means of both hands tended to increase with trial number. Significant differences between the dominant and non-dominant hands were found in all trials of the moving beans test and in the 4th and 6th trials of the pegboard test. In summary, the pegboard and moving beans tests have significant practice effect and laterality.
A National Survey of Physical Strength conducted by the South Korean Sports Science Research Institute has officially published data every three years since 1989. Although the annual change in physical strength and physique are officially announced in South Korea, no report examining these annual changes has yet been published. In this study, the wavelet interpolation method (WIM) advocated by Fujii can be applied to specify the age at maximum peak velocity during adolescence (MPV) from the description of the height growth velocity curve, and verify the early physical maturation of South Korean youth from the annual change in the age at MPV of height. How the socioeconomic changes in Korea affect the annual changes in growth in height and weight is also examined. The WIM was applied in one-year increments from the first year of elementary school to the third year of high school using cross-sectionally averaged height and weight data drawn from the years 1989, 1992, 1995, 1998, 2001, and 2004 for South Korean and Japanese boys and girls. The age at maximum peak velocity (MPV) and MPV were determined from the velocity curve obtained by differentiating the height and weight distance growth curve for both countries’ boys and girls. Annual change was examined by applying the least square approximation polynomial to the age at MPV, and annual change in MPV of height and weight in boys and girls in the pertinent years. As the verification in the secular trend of age at MPV of height in South Korean youth using the wavelet interpolation method in the present study, the early maturation and change in growth pattern indicated by the younger age at MPV of height is thought to be objective evidence of the influence of the high degree of socioeconomic growth on morphological growth in South Korea. Therefore, the era of high economic growth in South Korea is already be ending, and the growth acceleration period which has occurred in modern South Korea may be ending also. However, the annual change of increasing morphological growth among male and female youths would have not reached as a slowdown in growth similar to the Japanese.
Phosphatidylserine (PS) has been suggested to improve learning and memory in aged humans and animals. However, it is uncertain whether soy beans transphosphatidylated PS (SB-tPS) confers a specific or a nonspecific inhibition of decay in learning and memory processing. We have examined the effects of SB-tPS on Drosophila wild type and mutants of learning/memory. In young flies, SB-tPS (5 mg/kg/day) had no effects on the memory immediately after a single olfactory conditioning (0-hr memory) but in aged flies, it inhibited the age-related memory decays. In the middle-term memory defect mutant, amnesiac, which is known to be identical to age-ralated memory impairment, the higher concentrations of SB-tPS (50 or 500 mg/kg/day) restored the memory impairment, whereas the learning defect mutant, turnip, which is deficient in activation of Ca2+/PS-stimulated protein kinase C (PKC) activity, was not affected by SB-tPS. Therefore, we propose that SB-tPS inhibits age-related memory impairment, in other words, Amnesiac-dependent memory possibly via Ca2+/PS-stimulated PKC activation. But we found no effects on their lifespan in SB-tPS fed flies of Drosophila.
This study aimed to measure the life-style habits and quantity of walking as an index of physical activity in preschool children and to examine the relationships between the above parameters and the fundamental motor ability of the children. Subjects consisted of 207 preschool children aged 4 to 5 years. The subjects participated in a 20 meter dash, standing long jump, and tennis-ball throw tests. The quantity of walking in the morning was measured by a pedometer for 3 weeks. Children in preschools with larger walking quantities showed higher total scores of motor ability. Children with high motor ability scores walked 4288 steps on average in the morning and walked about 1000 steps more than children with low scores. Children in preschools where the walking quantity was high also had other good habits including going to bed early and regular bowel movements after breakfast.
In conclusion, it is possible that children with good health management walk a great deal and have superior fundamental motor ability.
To obtain basic data on the imbalance between physique and physical development in children in recent years, as well as the relationship between obesity and physical strength, this study examined the relationship between body composition and physical strength/motor ability in children. We then tried to verify physical and motor abilities according to the morphological qualities and differences in physical and motor abilities with children classified by degree of obesity or leanness derived from BMI. The subjects were 97 boys and 92 girls at a nursery school in Gifu Prefecture, Japan. The items measured for physique and body composition were height, weight, BMI, muscle mass, body fat percentage, and amount of body fat. Bone density was calculated from speed of sound (SOS) and osteo-sono assessment index (OSI) from ultrasound propagation velocity and transmission index. The items measured for motor performance were 20 m dash, standing long jump, tennis ball throw, repetitive sideways jump, one-legged jump, and chin-ups.
A partial correlation analysis of physique/body composition and physical strength/motor ability was conducted, but no notable correlation was found between body composition and physical strength/motor ability. From this it is conjectured that physique and body composition have little effect on physical strength and motor ability in early childhood. Next, the children were classified as obese, average, or lean based on BMI, and a comparison was made between the groups in physical strength and motor ability. Among boys significant differences were seen in the 20 m dash, standing long jump, tennis ball throw, repetitive sideways jump, and one-legged jump. Among girls, no significant differences were seen in any of the items. A comparison of physical strength and motor ability by differences in morphological qualities revealed no significant differences in any item in either girls or boys. Thus, because congenitally determined factors are strong in the attainment of physical growth and development in early childhood, the effect of differences in morphological qualities on physical strength and motor ability is assumed to be small in early childhood.
I analyzed a level of the learning of the student of the care training with care training evaluation. The student was able to learn a manner in care training.
The care process was the second grade training problem, but a level of the learning was low. Education is necessary in study to have intelligence in a viewpoint of ICF.