The aim of the present study was to examine whether the amount of oral antimicrobial components, human β-defensin-2 (HBD-2), LL-37, and immunoglobulin A (IgA) might be affected by a single bout of intense exercise, and to determine whether the activities of two main neuroendocrinological systems, the hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis and sympathetic and adrenomedullary (SA) systems, to physical stress might be differentially or synergistically associated with these immunological changes. Seven young male volunteers either exercised on a recumbent ergometer at 75% V・O2max for 60 min (exercise session) or sat quietly (resting session). Saliva and blood samples were obtained at 60 min intervals during sessions for measurements of saliva antimicrobial components (HBD-2, LL-37, and IgA), hematocrit, and hemoglobin. Saliva cortisol and plasma norepinephrine were also determined at the same time points as a measure of activities of the HPA axis and SA system, respectively. Saliva levels of HBD-2 and LL-37 were increased during and after exercise, whereas saliva IgA was decreased after exercise. Saliva cortisol and plasma norepinephrine levels were increased during exercise. While the areas under the curve (AUC) of the time courses of saliva levels of HBD-2 and LL-37 were positively associated with those of plasma norepinephrine, the AUCs of saliva HBD-2 and LL-37 were negatively associated with those of cortisol levels in saliva. In contrast, the decreases in salivary IgA levels were not associated with changes in any stress-related parameters examined. The present findings raise the possibility that the activities of the HPA axis and the SA system during strenuous physical stress might differentially affect both oral HBD-2 and LL-37 levels, but not those of IgA.
This study aimed to qualitatively elucidate the current situation of and problems with elderly patients with dementia home recuperation as recognized by outpatient nurses. Three hospitals that had been in operation for more than five years agreed to participate in this study. An interview survey was administered to two outpatient nurses selected from each hospital by its executives (a total of six nurses). The interview was recorded using an integrated circuit recorder, and the recorded interview was then transcribed verbatim after obtaining the consent of each nurse. The obtained data were analyzed using qualitative induction. Nurses were all female, with an average age of 47.3±5.0 years. Regarding the current situation of and problems with seamless care for elderly patients with dementia home recuperation, six categories were extracted: (i) the practice of seamless care through multi-occupational description cooperation in the community, (ii) the role of an outpatient nurse according to the cognitive capacity of a patient, (iii) home recuperation, (iv) care after recognizing dementia, (v) improvement in dementia care skills as a professional, and (vi) the circumstances of a patient’s family. To continue home recuperation, seamless care for elderly patients with dementia through medical treatment and support for patients’ everyday life is required.
This study aimed to obtain basic data on the current situation of and problems with the use of elderly dementia patients’ abilities, as recognized by floor nurses working at hospitals for community-based care. To this end, an interview survey was conducted. The following three categories were extracted on the current situation of the use of elderly dementia patients’ abilities: “being involved in the transition to recuperating at home,” “dealing with elderly dementia patients while being aware of their abilities during their hospital stay,” and “understanding elderly dementia patients’ abilities with reference to their lives after leaving the hospital, through multi-occupation cooperation.” The following two categories were extracted as problems with the use of elderly dementia patients’ abilities: “elderly dementia patients are in a state in which their abilities cannot be used” and “owing to dementia, patients’ abilities are difficult to use.” Regarding the use of elderly dementia patients’ abilities recognized by nurses who were engaged in community-based care, the nurses reported that they tried to maintain the patients’ everydayness by regulating the rhythm of their daily lives and having them interact with each other. However, when the patients’ safety and treatment were prioritized, their abilities could not be exerted in many cases.
The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship among behavior of Japanese elite athletes and intention of sports persistency in collegiate athletes. The participants were 297 Japanese collegiate athletes (Age M=19.16±.93). First, we developed the scale of assessing Japanese elite athletes’ behaviors. The scale was 6 factors and 12 items, and validity and reliability of the scale was confirmed. Secondly, we examined the relationship among behavior of elite athletes and intention of sports persistency in collegiate athletes, and the results indicated that challenging behavior and sportspersonship behavior of elite athletes were effected to athletic identity of collegiate athletes, and athletic identity indicated intention of sports persistency. The results of this study might indicate the behavior of elite athletes effects the psychological aspects of adolescent sports participant, thus, elite athletes’ behavior is important for sports participants.
This study used a risk prediction training method as part of a drowning prevention lesson for elementary school students. In the risk prediction training class, illustrations of rivers and oceans were used. At the beginning of the class, students were told to find any risky issues in the illustrations, and then were asked to think about how to address these issues. Words that students used in their worksheets during the class were analyzed using the KJ (Kawakita, Jiro) method. In addition, a questionnaire survey about risk awareness and action-taking awareness was administered. Results demonstrated that while students were aware of other persons’ behaviors as depicted in the illustrations, they did not pay adequate attention to the surrounding environment. This study suggests that using risk prediction training may have potential to impact students’ risk awareness in a positive way.
We interviewed six third-year junior college nursing students regarding how nursing students utilize the "strengths" of elderly patients in their nursing practice. From these interviews, the following three categories were extracted: 1) "ascertaining the ‘strengths’ of elderly patients," 2) "incorporating the ‘strengths’ of elderly patients into nursing care," and 3) "inability to incorporate the ‘strengths’ of elderly patients into nursing care."At the stage when nursing students utilize the "strengths" of elderly patients in nursing care, the students were able to elicit the "strengths" of elderly patients when they successfully incorporated "feasible tasks," "potentially feasible tasks," and "good conditions that elderly patients desire" into nursing care. In contrast, when they were unable to elicit feelings regarding "good conditions that elderly patients desire" or unable to overcome the preconception that there are no "feasible tasks," they were unable to incorporate the "strengths" of elderly patients into nursing care. During practical training in gerontological nursing, it is vital that students shift their focus to "good conditions that elderly patients desire" in addition to nursing problems faced by elderly patients. The results of this study suggest that to achieve this shift in focus, teachers and instructors must provide guidance regarding the "strengths" of elderly patients to indicate the direction of nursing that students should take according to each situation.
This study aimed to examine low-frequency personal training effects on the elevation weight of chest and leg presses in a fitness club. The participants included 20 females who exercised thrice a week in the fitness club. Furthermore, they were randomly separated into two groups, i.e., personal training (PT) group: 11 females (mean age, 54.9 ± 10.9 years; mean height, 158.7 ± 5.0 cm; mean body weight, 53.6 ± 8.5 kg) and control (C) group: 9 females (mean age, 57.8 ± 10.6 years; mean height, 156.5 ± 5.2 cm; mean body weight, 55.8 ± 9.5 kg). They were also instructed to perform training to increase the elevation weight of chest and leg presses. Training was performed thrice a week for 12 weeks. The PT group performed personal training with a personal trainer once a week, and they followed the training menu that the personal trainer made twice a week. The C group performed training thrice a week without the trainer. The elevation weights of chest and leg presses were measured by 6 RM test. The elevation weights of chest and leg presses in the PT and C groups after training was significantly large than that before training. In addition, the elevation weights in the PT group after training was significantly large than in the C group. Although the elevation weight of chest and leg presses in both the groups were increased by the training, the amount of increase in the PT group was large compared to the C group. Low-frequency personal training increased the elevation weight than the training without a trainer.