This study investigated care practitioners in long-term care health facilities and verified the validity and reliability of care outcomes, using the support standards for the behavioral and psychological symptoms of dementia（SS-BPSD）. A questionnaire survey was administered to 1,275 nurses and 1,275 care workers at 255 facilities in 4 prefectures in the Tokai region. Validity and reliability were analyzed for SS-BPSD. There questionnaires were collected from 577 nurses (45.3%) and 581 care workers (45.6%). Of these, 482 nurses (37.8%) and 504 care workers (39.5%), whose SS-BPSD questionnaires yielded no missing data, were analyzed. Explanatory component analysis with promax rotation and confirmatory factor analysis were performed. In the exploratory factor analysis, support standards items were divided into four factors; none exhibited a factor loading below .40. All alpha values and element correlation processions of low-ranking items were correlated; so, internal consistency was verified. In confirmatory factor analysis, the comparative fit index was .912; a value exceeding .90 was considered suitable. Because the root mean square error of approximation was .066, its related criterion (below .08) was satisfied. Therefore, the fidelity of a hypothetical model obtained from the exploratory factor analysis was verified. A significant correlation was observed between all low-ranking items of the scale of communication strategies and those of SS-BPSD (p < .01); so, the validity of SS-BPSD was verified. The internal consistency, construct validity, and concurrent validity of the support standards were confirmed. There is useful for evaluating care outcomes of BPSD characteristics observed among elderly persons, and for improvement of the quality of dementia care.
This study aimed to track the degree of physical fitness in children, by examining the relationship between physical fitness levels at 6 and 12 years of age using longitudinal data. Participants included 194 children (104 boys and 90 girls) who performed physical fitness tests at the ages of 6 and 12 years. We conducted 7 exercises at 6 years of age and 8 at 12 years. We calculated Pearson's product moment correlation coefficients between fitness levels at these two ages. Significant correlations were observed in all of the items assessed in boys at the two ages (jumping power: r=0.592, muscular endurance: r=0.314, flexibility: r=0.286, running ability: r=0.840, throwing power: r=0.673, agility: r=0.385, muscle strength: r=0.444, overall physical fitness: r=0.717). In girls, significant correlations were observed in jumping power (r=0.297), flexibility (r=0.334), running ability (r=0.562), throwing power (r=0.338), agility (r=0.292), and overall physical fitness (r=0.534). The flexibility item was found to track fitness to a significantly higher degree in girls compared to boys. The items of jumping power, running ability, throwing power, agility, muscle strength, and overall physical fitness, were found to track fitness to a significantly higher degree in boys compared to girls. In boys, running ability, throwing power, jumping power, muscle strength, muscle endurance tracked moderately well during the study period. In girls, running ability tracked moderately well. These results suggest that the physical fitness levels of boys and girls at 6 years of age predict their fitness levels at 12 years of age moderately well. In addition, fitness levels in boys generally show a higher degree of tracking over time compared to girls.
The purpose of this study is to investigate the effect of mastication on the autonomic nervous system. The experimental subjects were 20 healthy young females. They were tested while doing three physical activities. Three physical activities were gum chewing alone, exercise alone, and gum chewing after exercise. During each activity the heart rate variability was measured together with heart rate（HR）, blood pressure（BP）on three occasions, by using an acceleration plethysmography system. The three occasions were before, immediately after, and 15minutes later. The heart rate variability was analyzed using frequency analysis to know the autonomic nerve balance, which is the activity valance（index: LF／HF） of the sympathetic nerve（index: LF）and parasympathetic nerve（index: HF）. The changes in HR, BP and LF／HF were examined using two- way repeated ANOVA to learn the influence of the three different activities over the course of time. Factors related to the changes in the LF／HF coursed by chewing were examined. As for the LF／HF, three different patterns over the course of time were observed depending on the activity being performed. During gum chewing activity, the LF／HF had a tendency to rise immediately after chewing compared to before, and then recover to the baseline. During exercise activity, the LF／HF was continuously elevated, and reached a significantly high level 15 minutes later. During activity of gum chewing after exercise, the LF／HF was highly elevated, but significantly decreased 15 minutes later compared to immediately after. This decrease in the LF／HF was mainly due to the elevation of HF. Factors related to the elevation of the LF／HF after gum chewing were the small elevation of HR, and the shortness of the period of exercise. There is a possibility that mastication moderately stimulates the sympathetic nerve, but when mastication is done in a condition of excitement coursed by exercise, it suppresses the excitability of the sympathetic nerve.
The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of consuming 3.0 g of ginger powder containing 6-shogaol and 6-gingerol on skin temperature.
Subjects were 10 males. Subjects drank 3.0 g of powdered ginger that contained 60% 6-shogaol and 95% 6-gingerol dissolved in 200 ml of water. Skin temperature was measured using an infrared thermometer before consumption and at 15 min intervals over a course of 90 min after consumption. Measurements were taken on the cheeks, neck, and dorsa of the hands and feet. For statistical analysis, two-way repeated measures ANOVA. When interactions were detected in the abovementioned statistical analysis, multiple comparisons were performed using the Bonferroni method. A significant level was set at p<0.05.
After the consumption of the 6-shogaol drink, significant increases in skin temperature were observed in the cheeks and neck after 15 to 90 min; dorsa of the hands and feet after 15 to 45 and 90 min. After the consumption of the 6-gingerol drink, significant increases in skin temperature were observed in the cheeks after 90 min ; neck after 15 to 60 min ; dorsa of the hands and feet after 15 to 30 min. After the consumption of the 6-gingerol drink, significant decreases in skin temperature were observed in dorsa of the hands after 90 min, dorsa of the feet after 60 to 90 min.