Relationships between learning motivation and psychological adjustment have been suggested by self-determination theory, a broad framework for understanding motivation and well-being. However, there are a few prospective studies which need to examine effects on subjective well-being and mental and physical health, and especially few prospective studies on the effects among Japanese samples. The purpose of this study has been to examine the effects by using a prospective design.
The participants, 147 college students (62 women and 85 men), participated in two sessions (Time 1 and Time 2) with a four-week interval. At Time 1, the Learning Motivation Scale for Japanese Learners, the Japanese versions of the Satisfaction with Life Scale, and the three subscales of the Hopkins Symptom Checklist (the Somatization, Depression, and Anxiety) were administered. At Time 2, the scales except the Learning Motivation Scale for Japanese Learners were administered. Questionnaires were anonymously administered by a teacher in the class at both sessions.
Hierarchical regression analyses showed that the whole motivation had small effects on all the facets of psychological adjustment at Time 2, even after controlling for the facets at Time 1. Although subsequent psychological adjustment was influenced negatively by prior amotivation and positively by prior intrinsic motivation, prior extrinsic motivation had only effects on subsequent life satisfaction and somatization. Both prior controlled regulation and autonomous regulation also had effects on most of the facets of subsequent psychological adjustment. Introjected regulation and identified regulation had little effects of subsequent psychological adjustment.
Screening older adults with mild cognitive impairment (MCI) is significant because MCI is often considered to be a transition stage between normal cognition and dementia. Some screening methods have been developed; however, these methods require a lot of human resources and time. Square-Stepping Exercise (SSE) is a novel form of exercise, which requires both attention and memory (i.e., watching, remembering, and then executing stepping patterns) and could improve cognitive function in older adults. The purpose of this study was to test relationships between stepping task performance and cognitive function. In total, 170 community-dwelling adults aged 65 years or older participated. If participants scored less than 26 on the Montreal Cognitive Assessment, they were considered to have probable MCI. Ten different SSE patterns were selected based on previous experiences and examined whether or not participants could correctly execute the stepping patterns. 43 (25%) in the 170 participants were defined as having MCI. Reliability in each pattern was significantly high. There were significant differences in the success ratios in three SSE patterns between MCI and non-MCI participants. The patterns also showed significant differences in sex and the number of trials. In conclusion, the SSE patterns may discriminate among older adults with and without MCI. Future research should develop a screening method for MCI, including information on the SSE patterns, sex, and a trial number.
In the field of sports science, very little research has focused on social support. In this study we investigated the relationship between athlete identity and performance in competitive university swimmers. We also identified the factors that define athlete identity and investigated the influence of social support. The study subjects were 70 university swimmers (male: 64, female: 6) who responded to athlete identity and social support scales in a questionnaire format. The results of a covariance structure analysis showed the goodness of fit and validity of a model of the athlete identity formation process that affects athletic performance. The study findings show that athlete identity affects performance and that emotional and social support from important others helps to define athlete identity as a competitive swimmer. These results may be important data in future investigations of the performance of competitive swimmers.