Obesity is defined as a state of excessive accumulation of fat in the body. Studies on obesity are too numerous to mention, but there are almost no reported investigations of characteristics in obesity by the observation of the growth process. This study analyzed longitudinal growth process of height based on body fatness classifications, using data on the longitudinal growth in physique of Korean youth. The subjects were 1,701 twelfth grade students (final year of high school; 865 boys and 835 girls) from the area around Busan, South Korea. A retrospective survey of the subjects’ health checkup records was done, and longitudinal data on height and weight were obtained. Body mass index (BMI) was calculated from the respective height and weight in each age, and subjects were categorized by body fatness type from BMI statistics. Wavelet interpolation was applied to the obtained growth velocity in height from 6 years until 17 years, and a growth velocity curve was described. The age at the maximum peak velocity (MPV) was specified from a velocity curve derived from the described growth velocity curve. A tracking analysis was also done of the status in 17 years of children classified as obese in 6 years. The results suggest that both boys and girls classified as having the obese body type mature early, and while the height of obese type children is maintained until puberty their final height is conjectured to be no different from the standard type. The migration rate of obese type children in 6 years was 51% for boys and 54% for girls.
Well-being is a complex construct with a variety of determinants, and is defined on the basis of the two principal approaches: hedonism and eudaimonism. Previous studies have suggested that learning motivation as one of the determinants can influence well-being. However, there were a few studies which examined the influences of learning motivation based on self-determination theory on well-being in accordance with both hedonism and eudaimonism. The purpose of this study has been to examine the influence of learning motivation on well-being among college students based on the self-determination theory.
The participants were 144 college students (52 women and 92 men). They were administered the four measures: the 15-item Learning Motivation Scale, the Japanese versions of the 5-item Satisfaction with Life Scale, the 12-item Scale of Positive and Negative Experience, and the 8-item Flourishing Scale.
Although several alternative structural models representing the hypothesized influence were analyzed by structural equation modeling, only a multiple indicators model has fitted the data. The results of the analysis of this model showed that learning motivation may clearly influence well-being. The influence of learning motivation may be given to the three main aspects of well-being in the almost same degree. Furthermore, it is possible that well-being may be influenced negatively by non- and external regulations and positively by identified and intrinsic regulations. The influence of introjected regulation may be small.
The purpose of this study was to determine the efficacy and suitability of the oxygen uptake efficiency slope (OUES) to assess cardiorespiratory fitness in intellectually disabled (ID) individuals.
We studied 40 sedentary ID individuals using a bicycle ergometer. Peak VO2, ventilation threshold (VT), and OUES were measured as indices of exercise performance. OUES was calculated on data corresponding to 60, 80 and 100% of the heart rate max (OUES60, OUES80, OUES100). These relative exercise intensities were identified using the predicted maximal heart rate (220-age).
Of the 40 participants, 12 did not reach a peak respiratory exchange ratio (RER) of 1.09, while 28 subjects exceeded this value. A highly significant correlation was observed between OUES and peak VO2 (r = 0.88, p < 0.01), whereas a moderately significant correlation was found between VT and peak VO2 (r = 0.68, p < 0.01). No significant differences were found between OUES100, OUES60, and OUES80 in the maximal effort group. The OUES of ID individuals is related to peak VO2, is not influenced by exercise intensity, and can be used to evaluate cardiorespiratory evaluation at approximately 60% submaximal
This study investigated the effect of instruction by a school pharmacist in enhancing the drug education of college students who aim to be sports teachers. A questionnaire survey with 11 questions on basic knowledge of drugs and medicines was given to 128 second year students (males 99, females 29) of a sports college who intended to acquire a health and physical education teaching certificate for middle school and high school. Afterward, they were given a 90-minute lecture on drug education by a school pharmacist and answered the questionnaire again immediately after the lecture and again after three months to check their level of understanding and retention. It was found that the students realized the points that were important, and that there was a certain effect in students' knowledge, understanding, and behavior. It is thought that they came to recognize the need for self-management. These findings suggest that students who aim to be teachers in the future were able to recognize the importance of drug education from a professional, the school pharmacist, which is the first step toward future enhancement of drug education in health and physical education courses.