This article examines the politics of the measurement of children's bodies. We usually think a priori that a measurement of a body and its measuring scale are objectively transparent and colorless things; and moreover, the measuring tools are deduced from an anatomically physical structure. However, considering the birth of a measurement scheme for bodies, we can easily find an obvious politically intention within the criteria of the measurement. That is, the regard of the measurement leads to the invention of a mean value for the collective body and making up a regulable substance.
Modern social work or social welfare is specialized alomg various lines. The object of specialization has been historically and socially constructed for each “field” in response to differing perspectives on the object. This paper discusses developments in the concept of Intellectual disabilities and the rise of institutions for the disabled in the Meiji and Taisho eras. First, those deemed to be ‘idiots’ were eliminated from public schools. Second, those with ‘Teino’ was identified in public schools, and the concept for them was developed by observation and study in special schools for such children.
This paper analyzes the policy-making process behind welfare policies for the elderly in relation to the political and ideological landscape in the 1960-70s. Changing social reality, political and ideological trends provided the momentum for pushing particular policies, that policy-makers were able to take strategic advantage of. This aspect of policy-making can be compared to story-making. In examining the “story-making” processes, this paper aims to elucidate how actors in the policy-making process chose and pushed forward agenda under the influence of contemporary political and ideological trends.
Today there are large number of studies concering the problems of familial caregivers. However, little attention has been given to the process by which the caregivers coping strategy changes in a difficult situation. In order to understand caregiver's experiences, this paper tries to focus on the changing process of caregivers “routinization strategy”. The routinization strategy is divided into two ways: one is “drawing a line between caregiving tasks and non caregiving works”, the other is “shortcutting in interaction with the care recipient”. After an examination based on interviews with familial caregivers, we found that the increasing needs of caregiving tasks would lead caregivers to the following two problematic outcomes: first, they cannot “draw lines, second, it is difficult for them to gain the meaning from continuing to do caregiving. We further found that these two outcomes would lead caregivers to an ever more troubled situation.
In a rapidly changing society, we must reconsider the way sociology understands ‘others’. Drawing upon the insights of clinical scientist, E.H.Erikson, I take ‘nonviolence’ and ‘mutuality’ as crucial for communicating with others. He shows this, in Gandhi's Truth., as a convergence of the method of Freud and that of Gandhi. Clinical work is a therapeutical ‘encounter’ in that the disciplined clinician discards his status of social superiority, participates in the patient's inner life as a partner, accepts accusations and suspicions to the doctor, yet gives the patients a space to recall memories of repressed conflict within the unconscious. As nonviolent activists like Gandhi show in their practices, to be willing to suffer by discarding one's own body assists others to discover nonviolence in their mind, and transforms the conflictive relation with others to mutuality.
This paper aims at an analysis of identity management by crime victims, a subject that has not been treated previously in sociology. For that purpose I examine the process of social interaction that hurts/heals crime victims. This paper is an attempt to construct a sociology of victims.
This paper explores the effects of Canadian multicultural policy on the process of identity formation of Korean-Japanese immigrants. Major effects of multiculturalism on this ethnic minority group are as folloes, (1) ethnic revival (2) the encouragement of naturalization and a feeling of nationhood, (3) self-identification as a member of Canadian society according to multicultural model mediated through employment, and (4) conflicts about ethnic collective belonging.
This study explores portrayals of “Foreign” characters in television advertising. Content analysis conducted in 1990 by FCT (Forum for Citizensユ Television), combined with original data from 1995 and 2000, is used to compare the representation of “race”, “sex”, “age” and “role”. The results reveal an increase in the number of “white” characters, the presence of gender-bias and a trend to younger characters. This study indicates that while there has been some change in the period of investigation but the variety and reality of メforeignモ characters is not visible and social change in Japanese society in the 1990s is not reflected in television advertising.
This paper examines the functional conditions of the prefectural integration defined here as that a prefecture negotiates with and persuades municipalities that opposed to, and considers the patterns of prefectural integration on the Seibi-Shinkansen construction cases. The writer demonstrates that functional conditions of prefectural integration depends on the diversities of prefecture's enthusiasm for construction that arise out of the decision-making at the national level and of the situations of the prefectures, and differ from the power relation between the prefecture and municipalities. There are three patterns of prefectural integration: pressure, compensation, and concession.
The aim of this paper is to examine the social condition of the telephone and its users in 1950s. The telephone of today is one of the most common means of communication and forms a universal network, whereas in those days the telephone was still very rare and uncommon. Rapid popularization of the telephone in Japan started from 1960s, so there are two questions: How did the telephone had pass the critical stage in the process of rapid popularization? Who contributed to that popularization by adopting the telephone at the very beginning? To answer these questions, we take the example of Kamakura City, Kanagawa Prefecture in 1950s, and investigate the profile of early users and their ways of using the telephone. The findings of this analysis show social usage of the telephone and development of its network in these periods was reflected in social activity in the local community. In 1950s, the telephone network was growing as a community medium.
By focusing on diversity of personal networks, I will show the structure and function of diverse networks. My hypothesis is that networks rich in diversity don't always include many bridges. To verify the hypothesis, I examine the relation between bridges and network diversity, then show that the both have no correlation. I find that a network that has many bridges is not diverse. Diverse networks have the following structure and function. First, diverse networks include many contacts and their structure allows an escape from dependence on a boss. Second, diverse networks function to collect information and allow escaping from network constraints. My findings suggest that diverse networks bring benefits and have no relation to network bridges.
Previous researches have indicated that attitudes concerning the gendered division of labor are multi-structured. This paper further investigates this point and finds that the attitudes concerning the gendered division of labor has three dimensions: attitudes concerning the gendered division of labor in the narrow sense; norms of love; and a sense of ‘good’ child care. The determinants for each dimension are explored. The results indicate that the rigidity of the gendered division of labor in Japanese society is supported by strong pressure for ‘good’ child care.
The purpose of this paper is to examine determinants of political participation from the perspective of authoritarian attitudes and arguments. In The Authoritarian Personality, the authoritarian type of man is compared with the democratic type (anti-authoritarian type) and the democratic type of man is shown to have a tendency to talk with parents on certain issues in childhood. But, we find that both the fondness for argument which is important for democracy and the authoritarian attitude are affected by talking with one's father in childhood. To talk with one's father in childhood is important but ambivalent in terms of political participation.
This paper discusses the conception of ideology and the critique of ideology in Horkheimer's critical theory, focusing on his critique of Mannheim's theory and his essays about ideology. Horkheimer objects to Mannheim saying that he “generalized” the conception of ideology and “formally” applied social determination to every perception. According to Horkheimer, ideology is judged not by its social determinations but by its social functions. And so, in Horkheimer's critique of ideology, the most important point is the social functions of ideology.
This paper tries to demonstrate that relativism, scepticism, and anti-realism that the Sociology of (Scientific) Knowledge inevitably assumes are logically difficult and not useful for empirical investigations. First, by way of Reductio ad absurdum, the Reflexive Programme is examined. Next, a relativist-sceptist orientation is grasped in the empirical studies of Sociology of Scientific Knowledge. This orientation is criticized from the standpoint of ethnomethodological studies of scientific work. A Praxiology of knowledge is proposed.
G. H. Mead formed his methodological theory from ‘relativity’ and acts. His interpretation of ‘relativity’ has two aspects. One is a ‘relativity’ between the present and the past/future. The other is a ‘relativity’ between a physical object and an individual. These aspects arise according to acts, especially to the act of perception through acts, physical objects acquire a reality. The reality that the individual adds to the time and the space, then, is just an extension of the reality an individual adds to physical objects.
Sociology was born with the emergence of modern society. Therefore, the study on modernity has been one of the most important tasks in sociology. In fact, sociology has made many things clear about “modern capitalism”, “modern family”, “modern nation state” and so on. This can be recognized as an honorable achievement of sociology. Can we say, however, that sociology has examined the modern character of face-to-face relationships? Face-to-face relations have existed in all societies throughout history, and are different from, for example, relations via electronic media. In this sense, face-to-face relations are universal. Does the universality, however, mean that its property has never changed? The aim of this paper is to examine the transformation of face-to-face relations and to point out the unique character of face-to-face relations in modern society.
This paper attempts to clarify the significance of Lumann's system theory in a case of bureaucratic pathology. Luhmann  pointed out the functions of informal behavioral expectations in formal organizations. Applying this idea to Japanese bureaucracy, it is demonstrated that the over evaluation of thoughtfulness, “Takt, ” is one of the most important factors accounting for contemporary problems. Using more recent works, this paper examines Luhmann's system theory as a frame for analysis of bureaucracy.
The purpose of this paper is to make a critical examination of U. Becks' theory of “risk society” from the standpoint of the governmentality approach, proposed by M. Foucault, and developed by others. The exploration of complex dynamic transformations in contemporary societies is one of the most important issues in sociology. Becks' discussion of a “risk society” makes a major contribution to this subject in terms of the emergency of global risks and the process of individualization. However, the presuppositions of his theory prevent him from fully grasping diversity and heterogeneity of this transformation. The governmentality approach provides an alternative perspective on this question.
Bourdieu's “cultural capital” is generally understood as high culture. However, from such a viewpoint, we cannot see how particular cultures achieve high prestige. This paper explains how some cultures become capital by referring to Bergson's “Matter and Memory” where Bourdieu found important factors of the logic of practice. The body, a fundamental factor of cultural capital, is the basis for presenting the past. As mastery of the specific habitus takes much time, the capital value of habitus is dependent on when its acquisition begins. Moreover, the “fields”, ordered by the presence of the pasts, legitimize the governing classes and their cultures by historical order. Therefore, cultural capital is the past utilized in the present, and its values are determined according to the logic of earliness.
P. Bourdieu's analysis of the State is an epoch-making accomplishment based upon his theory of practice. He regards the State as a legitimately exercised field of physical and symbolic violence and as a monopolisticaly concentrated field of various forms of capital. The symbolic violence forces the legitimacy on actors or agents, and then, forms the cognitive structure in their mentality. Bourdieu analyzes the historical process behind the formation of the modern State, and theoreticaly explains the correspondence between the objective structure of the social world and the cognitive structure in actors or agents. I focus on the importance of his analysis of the State.
This paper deals with Amitai Etzioni's thought and social theory or New Communitarian thinking. New Communitarian thinking has nothing to do with oppressive old-fashioned communities. It advocates the balancing of autonomous individuals and orderly communities. By so doing, it tries to modify present world-wide libertarian tendency, which has broken down the “common goods”. It seeks to establish a new community concept and new community relationships among members. First, this paper introduces the New Communitarian way of thinking. Second, it compares this with another political and sociological thought.