Even in the sociology of knowledge proposed by Berger/Luckmann, as well as in the traditional studies of social thought, the fundamental schema is “ideologist” one. For they totally treat the professional thoughts as the derivatives from a certain ‘Basement’. Against this viewpoint, we investigate the connection between the study of definition of the situation and that of social thought. The former proposes to describe the schema used in a certain aspect of social life. The latter can extract the schema as the ‘hard core’ of the ‘program’. By comparing these two kinds of schemata, we can also represent the propagation and transformation of professinal thoughts. Study of social thought penetrating into wider range may start there.
In his well-known thesis of post-materialism, Ronald Inglehart offers a theory to explain opinion cleavage and political action in modern industrialized democracies. Inglehart has applied the thesis to value change as it affect voting choice and new social movements in Western democracies. While others have considered it in Japan. Since 1971, Inglehart has offered substantial, if sometimes conditional empirical evidence from Western countries in support of a post-materialist phenomenon. But some scholars have challenged the theory on empilical and theoretical grounds. The object of this paper is to summarize the critical arguments and then to condisider whether the theory of Inglehart still works well for or not.
This study reexamines Sect Democracy, which was discussed by Max Weber, Jeffrey C. Alexander & Colin Loader, and so on. (We use “Sect Democracy” in the sense of Alexander & Loader's discussion, in which they emphasize that the modern society can be integrated and controlled by the network of sect-like organizations.) Being based on Weber's discussion, we will, first, deal with the features of Sect Democracy; the voluntary and exclusive membership, and the influence(teleological/causal) on the community. Secondly, we will point out several problems concerning these features, and, finally, regard the priciple of Sect Democracy as the mechanism of the people's credit-creating processes in contemporary democracy.
It is widely known that there is a critical situation in the theories of collective behavior though many contributions, practically and theoretically, have been made untill now. This dead alley of the theories is, in particular, due to the concepts without precision and minutenesses which would make the common understandings among the collective-behaviornists and suggests us to return to Park's studies, that is, contents of arguments of the founder of this sociological domain. This paper aims mainly to examine and reveal the concepts of the crowd and thepublic referring to his studies of collective behavior after 1921.
This paper focuses on the self-narrative theory proposed by K. J. Gergen and M. M. Gergen. This theory can be considered to be very insightful in explaining self, in that (1) it understands self as a product of self-narrative-acts, in other words, the reflexivity and historicity of self and (2) it understands self as a communicative and relational phenomenon, not an isolated entity, which means social constructedness of self. But it is considered to be still insufficient, because it fails to grasp fully the reflexivity of self, that is to say the relation to oneself. So extending their theory to cover this reflexivity fully makes possible a comparative sociology of self.
The mechanism of cognition has not been treated as a sociologically important theme. Luhmann's system theory, however, takes up this mechanism and bases the theoretical frameworks upon it. In this paper, the auther sheds light on the content of Luhmann's epistemological declaration “radical constructivism”, and explains what that term means. The argument is as follows: 1.The problem of identity and meaning is considered in terms of observation. 2. Second order observations are clarified, distinguished from first order observations. 3. Observing system is observed as closed one that constructs its own reality and de-paradoxizes its own paradox.
A concept called “co-dependence” is proposed as describing the social relationships in the modern age. This concept, originally conceived in the field of therapy of addictions, can be available as a sociological concept which presents a model of social relationships. However, this concept is partially problematic for applying to the field of sociology because it is originally conceived in the field of clinics. It will be necessary to solve these problems for the further application of this concept in the theory of social relationships.
The purpose of this paper is to show from cthnomethodological standpoint that institutional setting, which is taken for granted by its participants, is organized by interaction of participants themselves. Through video analysis (conversation analysis) I am going to examine how Hakoniwa Therapy (Sand Play Therapy) is organized interactionally as Hakoniwa Therapy by gaze-directions or other body movements of participants. It is a clue to a solution to consider reflexivity of a institutional setting and actions in the setting as reflexivity of a set of institutional statuses and organization of participation statuses.
Today, we have many various descriptions of what constitutes the “ideal body, ” particularly in terms of being “slender.” In this essay, I would like to explore the details of such descriptions as they appear in special “diet” magazine issues. I believe that, through the actions of a power apparatus, we become aware of our “non-ideal” bodies. Then the desire for an “ideal” body is born within us. Moreover, descriptions of an “ideal body” call to mind an “ideal world, ” and by conforming to the demands of the “ideal body, ” we think we can participate in this “ideal world.” The described “body” affects real bodies: the various descriptions of the “ideal body” work to eliminate the variety in actual bodies. However, the possibility for real bodies to influence the paradigm of the described “body” must also be remembered.
We examine some (especially feminists') criticisms against the use of reproductive technologies from the standpoint that the right of self-decision should be protected: 1. lack of information which is a precondition of self-decision, 2. burden on women and uncertainty of the outcome, 3. getting babies (not women's own health) by hurting women's body, and intervention of medical professionals, 4. obstruction to self-decision by i) compulsion and ii) social norms, 5. trespass on other persons (e. g. the whole women with infertility). These are all important and as to 1 and 4-i, the use should be restricted or prohibited unless problems pointed out are resolved, But as to 2, 3, 4-ii and 5, they are weak to prohibit the use under the principle of self-decision.
It has been a conventional view that there is no competition in Japanese companies. But in fact, the long time work is a universal phenomenon in Japan. I think that one of the major reasons is caused by the promotion system inside enterprises. In this paper, I want to clear up the mechanism of competition and the sense of competition between the Japanese workers by this system.
This paper aims to find the appropriate way of utilizing foreign white-collor employees, working for Japanese companies in Japan. Personnel managers of Japanese companies often argue that they have failed to utilize foreign workers mainly because they do not remain long enough within one company. There are some presumptions which seem to explain such trend. However, based on empirical data, quite few of them have been actually evaluated. This paper tries to examine some of the presumptions by using recent data gathered from “the survey on the attitude and treatment of foreign white-collar workers in Japanese companies.”
Part time jobs for women have been on the increase for several years. In this paper, I would like to make clear the following three issues: (1) the economic and social ground in 1960-1990. (2) the characteristics and problems of women's part time work. (3) the countermeasures of workingwomen's problems. Japanese women take most of the responsibility for the family. The changing of the sex roles is closely linked with the reconstruction of the social and economic system.
IEMOTO system is one of the integrated formations in japanese traditional cultural and martial art (budo) groups. It was amplified as ‘IEMOTO’ by F. L. K. Hsu, and it was the important kye concept for understanding of japanese organizations. T. Nishiyma and T. Kawashima examined and defined not only its cultural matter but also some economical, legal, and instituional features. In this paper, by introducing some concepts of P. Bourdieu: corporalization, reification, and cultural capital, I will re-examine the feature of IEMOTO system on the cultural field, especially SADO, and I will clarify the cultural stratification behind japanese popularized traditional arts.
Previously a research on a new religion has focused on its magicoreligious aspects. However we cannot neglect the fact that there are both magico-religious and self-disciplinary aspects. Many of new religions propose magico-religious aspects as a means of salvation for the followers and also require people to discipline themselves by their own doctrine. It is important for us to examine how these two elements are related to each other. In this paper, we concentrate on Shinnyoen which is one of the new religions, research written sotries of the followers' experiences, and make clear the relation between self-disciplinary and magicoreligious elements. In this case, systematic magico-religious actions are supported by formalized discipline in the followers' ordinary life.
One peculiarity in Ogasawara is the people who have lived since the histroy of Ogasawara began. They are not Japanese-Japanese (mainly Europeans or Americans) and have suffered from the World war. Not only the war itself but also the change of the ruler gives them their own history. In this paper, I intend to present a feature of their language and the education they have taken. I also try to describe how and why they took theer course under the circurmstance. In conclusion, for them, the maintaining peace and order to live together in a small island is the matter of supreme importance, and those who failed to adjust themself to new environments had to leave for the new country, which had given them the education in their childfood.
This paper has two purposes: 1. to explore cultural differences in the perception of face (mianzi) between Chinese (from the People's Republic of China) and Japanese; and 2. to analyze how these differences affect communication between people from the two cultures. To tackle qualitative differences in the perception of face in the two cultures, in-depth interviews were conducted in an academic setting. The interviewees were: 1. five Japanese who lived in China; 2. eight Chinese living in Japan; 3. two Japanese who have been teaching Chinese students for over ten years; and 4. an American who lived in China and now lives in Japan. The data were analyzed through the KJ method.
There is now a very wide economic gap between Sri Lanka and Malaysia. In 1990 the per capita GNP was 418 US$ in Sri Lanka, 2710 US£ or some 6.5 times higher in Malaysia. The main cause of this gap is the disparity in the social stability of the two countries, which consists of two aspects: differences in economic conditions and the ethnic problem. This paper will be limited to the discussion of the ethnic problem which is now affecting the social conditions of both countries in various ways. The purpose of this paper is to clarify the elements of the ethnic problem by analyzing the differences in this problem in the two countries.
Although Mexicans are one of the major groups of recent legal immigrants into the United States, their reluctance to naturalize has been apparent in statistics and surveys. Not only geographical proximity to their home country and obstacles in bureaucracy, but also their sense of belonging to Mexico and discrimination in American society prevent them from taking the step toward naturalization. It illustrates that even with today's transnational trend of migration, the norm of belonging to a specific nation has considerable influence on individuals. One can also speculate that a massive presence of non-citizens demands the existing nation-state to change.
A new aspect of the mass communication process is proposed stressing on the superiority of mass audience to mass media. The fundamental concepts ‘interactivity’ and ‘autonomy’, the former being based on H. M. Enzensberger's media theory, the latter on ‘Cultural Studies’ and ‘Reader-Oriented Criticism’ are applied to support the superiority assumed by the author. As result of this ‘gedankenexperiment’, the author exemplifies a new aspect of ‘the contemporary mass audience’.
Recently the role of “media frames” in the process of making news has become a focus of attention. According to Gitlin (1980), media frames are persistent patterns of cognition, interpretation, and presentation, of selection, emphasis, and exclusion. It is important for us as audience to recognize not only that the news is not “a mirror of society” but also that the news is made through media frames. Besides, we must examine what the media frames are. In this paper, I intend to define and characterize the nature and function of media frames by analyzing the news on “All Five Walks” in the Summer High School Baseball Tournament in 1992.
This essay investigates the “grammar of caricature” in newspaper cartoons. The author argues that newspaper cartoons are classified into two types, the political cartoon and the social caricature. The social caricature analysed is called “Shakai Gihyo”. The contents of the two types are analysed in terms of three perspectives; (a) subjects, (b) symbols, (c) ballons and captions. Politics in Japan and international relations are the subjects of the political cartoons while in “Shakai Gihyo” include economic subjects. It is further argued that “Shakai Gihyo” is “communication that cuts to the quick” in its simplicity of symbols.
This study will clarify views of ideological or theoretical frameworks in the literature of the influence of study abroad on the modernization of Japan and China in order to present further possible ways to research in this field.