This article critically enquires into prevailing discourses on the rise of nationalism among the youth in Japan and proposes a sociological approach to an understanding of the situation involving them. Given the lack of sociological studies on this subject, empirical research is essential in order to understand the situation regarding youth and nationalism in present-day Japan. I have had valuable experiences of reflecting on the issue with students in university courses, who themselves conducted social research on the subject. The article reports two of such efforts. One is an attempt to look into the nature of problems of mass media in the creation and dissemination of discourses on the rise of nationalism. The other identified social processes that could generate nationalism such as those involved in the invention of the seemingly patriotic cheering style among soccer supporters. The article concludes with theoretical considerations, in which market-generated nationalism is contrasted with state-initiated nationalism.
The subject of this paper is to consider the influence of Gender Free Bashing (GFB) on present-day Japanese society. GFB means that there are certain political groups which oppose a gender-equal policy in Japan. Those who advocate GFB think that people who use words such as ‘gender’ or ‘gender-free’ are extremists who deny the existence of natural sex difference and family. Past researches has shown that GFB had influenced many young men who had supported nationalistic view. In this paper, I try to show the influence of GFB from the viewpoint of various people in connection with GFB. And I also try to show that the main aim of GFB is to achieve a invisible change in gender-equal policy through a supply of voluntary alignment of a member of administrative occupation.
Recently the public policy to promote voluntary civic action has been more and more criticized. The rapid and dramatic growth of voluntary action after the Hanshin-Awaji Earthquake resulted in the institutionalization of non-profit organizations, but, publicly promoted and supported, some civic groups have come to make a close connection with the neo-liberal wing of the government. The public promotion of NPO groups has been originally developed through the structural reform of municipalities based on the new public management. But under the new system many groups, especially ones related to social welfare, have been gradually forced to lose their identity as non-profit organizations. In this article, I will analyze the process of the deterioration of voluntary civic action in the government policy precisely to insist on the necessity that it should be “voluntary” again in the true sense of the word.
The notion of intersubjectively generated power enables us to distinguish power from compelling force or violence. However, it seems that such power rarely exists in reality. No one but Arendt who is the first to conceputualize this power in our time insists on the decline of “public space” and “action” which are indispensable for it. Through constructing an imaginary controversy between Arendt and Habermas, this paper shows that, while Habermas comes close to fallig into an inconsistency, he seeks to reconcile the notion of intersubjectively generated power with reality and that through the reconciliation, he gives us the principles that guide our efforts to realize such power.
Georges Bataille's thought is well known in the French tradition. However, implications of his views on non-knowledge (non-savoir) have yet to be explicated. In my opinion, if Bataille's philosophy of nonknowledge is compared with Alfred Schutz's thought, the contemporary significance of the conception of nonknowledge, not only in human sciences and social sciences but also in our daily life can be fully understood. Bataille calls Hegelian ‘absolute knowledge’ “a scandal, ” and rejects it. And Schutz, advocating the three methodological postulates, requires social scientists to avoid a monistic view of absolutism. Thus, I believe that it is in the idea of ‘the fallibility of human being’ that Bataille can meet Schutz. When we pay attention to the basic view which Schutz and Bataille share, a possibility for the development of a new theory of knowledge is opened up.
J. Butler, a feminism theorist, emphasizes gender “performativity.” While she points out the “production” of the subject by law following M. Foucault's power theory, she pays attention to the mechanism of “exclusion” by power with reference to psychoanalysis. However, she criticizes S. Zizek, a Lacanian philosopher, for assuming the real as the impossible “outside” to discourse. In the dialogues between Butler and Zikek, we can distinguish two kinds of otherness: (1) the other marginalized within language and (2) the impossibility of language itself. Based on the above mentioned argument, in this paper, I would like to interpret “performativity” as the process of construction/deconstruction of society, in order to reconsider the relationship between subject and society.
In recent years, we have been looking for a non-consequent self. It is generally said that the plural self is non-consequent. Have we already transcended the consequent self by means of the plural self? This paper argues that the plural self is constituted by many consequent identities, and in contrast the indeterminate self is not consequent. This is because the plural self can anticipate the future self while the indeterminate self can not. According to Bergson and Halbwachs, the difference between these selves is explained by the time: durée and cadre temporel. Time creates a unique memories. Thus, it does not lead to the comprehension of a non-consequent self yet.
This paper analyses body consciousness on the part of swimming instructors regarding with respect to intellectual disabled persons. It focuses largely on two examples. In the first example, the intellectually disabled person has difficulty with utterance, and the second, fragmentary utterance is possible. Examination of these examples reveals that the body of the intellectually disabled person is the “place” that forms the social relationship with the swimming instructor. In conclusion, I point out the importance of considering the working of the micro-social order that results from the awareness of the instructors. Therefore, “the problem of the disabled” is the social reality that is constructed by the awareness of the able bodied person.
This paper investigates the rationale among teachers for separating children with disability in special classes or schools for the handicapped in postwar Japan. It examines the debate within the Japan Teachers Union focusing on teachers' views of “ability” and “discrimination”. We find out that in the 1950s teachers arranged special classes following a logic similar to that used to justify ability grouping based on a generally prevailing view of students' ability as in-born. Notwithstanding the fact that there was a change to a view that saw “ability=equality” in the 1960s, they promoted special classes and schools for the handicapped without seeing the contradiction in logic. By making (social) discrimination the problem, they were able to ignore the inferiority complex of students.
Today the concept of ‘lay expert’ is increasingly mentioned in public discussions of health care, the judiciary and other areas. In the health care arena, patients and the family are thought to be a person with ‘lay expertise’. The Expert Patient Programme (EPP), which has been managed by the National Health Service (NHS) in the UK, aims at institutionalising ‘lay expert’ in the national healthcare system. This paper illustrates the out-line of the EPP and analyses literatures on this scheme for understanding the concept of ‘lay expert’ and its impact on people's awareness of patient-professional relationship. It is concluded that the EPP works to promote a new concept of ‘expert’ whilst the new concept can conflict with requirements for the institutionalization of ‘expert’ in modern society.
This paper attempts to clarify a paradigm shift connected with the formation of the concept “climacteric” in the modern medicine in Germany that might have paralleled the change of the social and cultural meanings of aging and gender. It will be shown that in the medical literature a discontinuity appeared about the middle of the nineteenth century, and that the concept of “climacteric” in the modern sense as well as a new paradigm were formed in the following period i.e. in the second half of the nineteenth century. Finally it is suggested that the “birth of climacteric” was a consequence not only of the invalidation of the traditional model of human life, but also of the rising concern about the reproduction; both of them required a redefinition of women's later life.
The public comments on the plan of “establishment and manipulation of human ES cell” were solicited in 2001. I analyze those comments as “claim-making activities” and identify some essential strategies of the commentators and the government administrators. The commentators used different strategies based on their social positions. The noteworthy strategy on the part of the government administrators was to choose and summarize public comments, and to confine replies to the topic under consideration, in order to gain acceptance of such medical research.
This paper examines the celebrity of architect Kenzo Tange through the analysis of not only specialized architectural magazines but also general newspapers and magazines in the 1950-60s. Shinkenchiku intentionally featured Tange's works in order to further the image of architects as authors. Architectural magazines create a community of readers with a hierarchy based on architects and non-architects, fame and anonymity. In the “Hiroshima Peace Memorial Park” the celebrity of Tange was linked to the figure of the nation rising from the ashes of war. It was also established by his visionary idea of urban planning and his academic authority. His orthodox celebrity was established around the time of the “National Gymnasiums for the Tokyo Olympics, ” and with symbolism and globalization came criticism of commercialization.
The purpose of this study is to clarify the effect of media consumption in promoting affinity to Korea in Japan in recent years. In the first part of this paper we confirm the social and cultural impact of increasing consumption of Korean media products usually called “Hallyu” or “Kanryu.” Next, based on the social survey data, we investigate the basic distributions of variables: affinity to Korea, changing impressions, media consumption, direct experiences and knowledge of Korea. Lastly, using multivariate analysis, we examine the causal structure of these variables and the factors leading to a changing Korean image. The results show that while the Korean media products tended to promote affinity and a more positive image, these did not lead to greater knowledge about either the history of Korea or the contemporary situation.
“The Japanese model” is now in competition with alternative models of corporate management. This paper proceeds from the assumption that social norms about companies shared by the Japanese people have influence on actual corporate management. It investigates how many and what kinds of people desire each model, based on a national random sample survey. The main results are: (1) about half the respondents desire “the modified Japanese model”; (2) according to multi-nominal regressions, pessimistic people tend to desire “the modified Japanese model” and people of anti-equalitarianism tend to desire “the U. S. model” Thus, it is suggested that “the modified Japanese model” will be stable in the near future. But in the long term, it is possible that “the Japanese model” will recover if people become more optimistic because of economic recovery. But, it is possible that “the U. S. model” will strengthen if the values of the Japanese people change.
This paper examines the formation of the Nigerian community in terms of how the business owners manipulate capital resources through mutual-help relations. The conclusion is that the indicated mutual-help relationship enhances the expansion of both capital and investment of the Nigerian business owners. Bonding with the chieftaincy system of their native country they maximize their power toward the Nigerian community. Building up a fictive family relationship within the same ethnic group provides a stable and secured employee agreement between the business owners and employees. These characteristics represent the creativity and well-conceived strategies for using reciprocity among the Nigerian community.