This paper elucidates the significance of self-referential descriptions of researcher experiences in the Life-story Research by critically examining the methodology of Sakurai Atsushi who is one of the leading sociologists in Biographical research. First, it is necessary to fully describe the process by which researcher self-awareness has grown deeper through interactions with the researched because the process is one of the vital contexts to thoroughly understand the life experiences of the researched. Second, description of the research process in which a researcher has struggled with unfamiliar situations and others should provide the readers of research products with valuable knowledge to survive the uncertain social world. Finally, I point out that self-referential description of researcher experience holds the potential to help overcome the difficulties that social research in general encounters.
This research has the following two goals: first is to clarify how a concept of “ibasho” (a place where one feels at home) that has been used for educational policies and the study of youth is used in society at large; second is to clarify how “a lack of ibasho”(having no place to stay) has become a social problem. The conclusions of this study are: the “ibasho” discourse can be divided into three periods; the three periods: after the late 1990's, “ibasho” discourse was connected with the discourse on juvenile delinquency; since the 2000s, “ibasho” became synonymous with support for children and youth and the provision of free spaces. Changes in the concept of “ibasho” gave young people a safety net or words that could be used to explain their difficulties. At the same time it became a cultural goal for young people.
Two questions are raised about Hannah Arendt's theory of the public (publicness). First, could “action” be to perform with violence boundlessly and unpredictably? Second, how is the public realm as the common world that “gathers us together and yet prevents our falling over each other” constituted? To address these problems, this paper aims to clarify the constitution of common world and reinterpret her theory of the public. The main subject is to take up her concept of “power” and “promise” in order to clarify the constitution of common world. It is constituted through both avoiding violence of “action” by “promise” and keeping “power”. We interpret this trait on common world as the “limits” to violence, and read Arendt's actual warning to “action” that leads to extreme violence.
This paper considers differentiated scientific disciplines using the concept of functional differentiation. According to social systems theory, society has evolved to a state in which it consists of a variety of large communication systems that can be identified by the functions they perform. The goal of this paper is to show that science is structured in the same way. Modern science is characterized by functional differentiation.
This paper aims to delve into the process of the “Zainichization” of “Zainichi Koreans” in the 1980s through the problem of employment as a “Zainichi Korean.” The reason why I focus on the issue of employment is that it is an important factor for the second generation of “Zainichi Koreans” to live in Japan as a permanent resident. It is also an indicator of integration into Japanese society. To analyze the employment problem, I used interview data and articles from famous “Zainichi Koreans” magazines such as the “Sanzenri” and “Uri-seikatsu” which were published in 1980s. I scrutinized this data into the two aspects of “personal effort” and “generation gap.” The most definite finding of this study is that attempting to get a job was not only an “individual practice” for “Zainichi Koreans” but also a “structural practice” which helped to build a bridge between Japanese society and “Zainichi Koreans.”
This paper analyzes Nihombashi Mitsukoshi, the first Japanese department store, from a historical perspective that seeks to explore its transformation as a shopping place for those going to the city. Previous studies have shown that initially when a department store was established it was built to be a pure shopping place and this made it inherently independent from the locality. Later many stores and boutiques including several different department stores gathered in one place to form a district just like a shopping place, Ginza being a notable example. Focusing on Nihombashi Mitsukoshi allows seeing the last stage of development for a department store that can no longer by itself be assumed to be as a consumers' paradise. Instead, it has begun opening its doors to the locality, Nihombashi to make this district a wider paradise for shoppers.
The purpose of this paper is to clarify how undergraduates in social science faculties perceive the criteria for hiring new university graduates and how they adjust to these criteria in preparing for interviews. The major findings are as follows. First, undergraduates refer to a public image of talent and recognize that it is relevant to the criteria for hiring new university graduates and recognize that to be themselves is more effective in order to pass the job interviews. Second, they discern that employers evaluate both generic skills like teamwork and nonverbal information. Third, they elaborately prepare a presentation about themselves that they believe plays to the criteria for hiring new university graduates. In conclusion, the implication of these findings is discussed.
“Dumping” is lack of appropriate support necessary due to disabilities in a seemingly inclusive setting. This paper examines the possibility of inclusion without dumping. First, it is pointed out that body conditions and needs for support arising from them have been absent from the general argument for inclusion. Next, Luhmann's and Hoshika's view of body conditions are examined. For them, inclusion is achieved by disregarding the body. This, however, can paradoxically lead to strong influence of the body as is illustrated with Americans with Disabilities Act. In this context an equally paradoxical solution is possible: regarding the body to help people disregard the body. This paper concludes that suitable forms of this are crucial to inclusion without dumping.
The purpose of this article is to consideration how artists perceive their creativity in art projects. Creativity or creating new values has been attracting attention through such concepts as “the creative city”, although the sociology of the arts has not taken account of creativity. Art projects in which artists and citizens try to stimulate their communities through art and cultural activities have developed throughout Japan, but artists feel a duality in their art activities. They have an “art-orientation” directed to making their works valuable in aesthetic or artistic terms. At the same time, they have a “relation-orientation” that regards making relationships as important. This duality makes the activities of artists more difficult. Nonetheless, they are trying to achieve a creative balance between these two orientations.
In this paper, I investigate “job autonomy,” defined as the extent to which employees exercise discretion in their work, and discuss the impact of job autonomy on women's job continuation at the stage of childbirth and childcare. I found out that highly-educated women or women with clerical jobs enjoy job autonomy. If women workers, especially highly-educated women have job autonomy, they can manage their own schedule more easily. This leads to job continuation at the stage of childbirth. Further, this study also shows that length of working hours does not necessarily determine job continuation.
Fingerprinting was the first technology capable of accurately identifying individuals. In the Japanese puppet state of Manchuria, fingerprinting was implemented on a large scale. Why was fingerprinting considered so necessary in Manchuria despite the huge effort required? In addressing this question, this paper focuses on the complicated mobilities of workers in Manchuria. The Manchurian government faced a situation of highly complicated mobilities and thus it needed a means of the control of mobilities. Further, the fingerprinting registration of workers gradually developed into a national registration system, so this paper examines the process of the implementation of fingerprinting registration and the formation of a national citizenry in Manchuria based on the control of mobilities.
Urban “disorder” has been treated as a characteristic of the ambiguous nature of large cities. But recently with the broken window theory and related policies becoming dominant worldwide, disorder has come to bee seen as mere “problem” that should be eliminated. This paper examines ambiguity of urban visible disorder. For this purpose, I took as a case study a local patrol directed against street pimps conducting interviews and participant observation. I found that street pimps and patrol members got acquainted over the years with a consequent change in their mutual relations. I conclude that in making guests available to sex industry shops that are invisible from the outside the visibility of street pimps makes them simultaneously both “nuisance” and “mediator”.
This study examines the effect of extra-school educational investment at an early age upon the study hours of high school students. The result of Tobit analysis shows that the experience of participating in shadow education at an early age (when the respondent was in elementary school) positively affects student study hours net of other variables including whether or not he/she has participated in shadow education after going on to high school. This result suggests that extra-school educational investment at an early age contributes to enhance student's ability that enables to study longer outside school.
This paper examines how ASHINAGA movement defines the “Ongaeshi” relationship and how the ASHINAGA scholarship students recognize this focusing on how the actors deal with the concept of gift. ASHINAGA provides scholarships for orphans funded by contributions from private individuals. The students recipients conduct the street-corner fundraising campaigns. The thought of “Ongaeshi” is the key concept of ASHINAGA movement. It calls for a multilayered serial reciprocity among the contributor, the students, and their juniors (other orphans). However, some students conduct campaigns while avoiding defining this as “Ongaeshi” as a means of avoiding the burden associated with a gift. But in any case, since the students are conducting campaigns, the “Ongaeshi” relationship is still realized in the movement.
“Karo-Jisatsu” (suicide induced by overwork) has often been connected to criticisms of Japanese society for its self-sacrificing labor culture and merciless economics. This argument merely repeats the legal and critical discourse of “Karo-Jisatsu” and voids the legal fiction of individuals with a responsibility to be critical of society. Moreover, at the level of practice, neither the cancelling of the fiction nor the issue of social criticism has been pursued. Contrary to the previous seemingly “sociological” explanations, our society neither operates strictly nor abandons easily the modern fiction of “intention”. The sociology of suicide should illuminate the various aspects of the fiction in our society.