This paper sheds light on the consequences of deportation on Mexican deportees, and, more importantly, it reveals, through the use of the notion of ‘multi-layered deprivation,’ the structural mechanism behind the obstacles and distress they experience, which are caused by a restrictive immigration regime. Such a mechanism of multiple deprivation occurs in two stages. The first stage takes place when restrictive border controls deprive undocumented immigrants of free mobility across the border, which leads to the consolidation of immigrants' settlements within the United States. Through this settlement process, many immigrants put down roots in American society and, due to a lack of free mobility, gradually lose close contact with their family in Mexico. This creates a fragile social relationship in their trans-national social space. The second stage occurs when the actual deportation occurs. In addition to the severe material and social deprivation caused by the deportation, the loss of social capital in Mexico that was caused in the first stage may result in further marginalization for the deported returnees.
Symbolically expressed by the concept of flat culture, it has been a long time since the distinction between high culture/popular culture and the definition of youth culture or the youth themselves became blurred. This paper traces the process of identity formation of rock culture and “the youth” as rock listeners in Japan by clarifying the transition in narratives tracing a distinction between the inner and the outer in each Japanese rock magazine. By so doing, the paper demonstrates that the difficulty counter cultures face today is mainly derived from the difficulty in imagining the mass of the population as a unified community.
This paper's two questions are: (1) How the discourse of Oya Minoru, who tried to establish crime victims as subjects of rights for the first time, constituted a way of thinking that connected the rights of crime victims to those of potential crime victims, and (2) how his discourse created a field of discourse around crime victim relief. Oya Minoru's discourse produced a field of discourse, in which, on the one hand, all civilians, as potential crime victims, were to be involved in the problems of crime victims, while, on the other hand, the people who had the right to receive crime victim relief were to be screened on an urgent basis. Finally, this discourse became the starting point for the discourse about crime victim relief and support that followed.
The purpose of this paper is to clarify the manner in which the psychological concept of “moratorium” is used within the Japanese discourse on youth. In recent years, the general discourse in Japan on youth has been criticized for being non-empirical. However, even though this discourse is not based on empirical data, it still contains a certain authenticity and it is accepted as authentic by the general public. I present a conceptual analysis of the psychological concept of “moratorium” in order to describe the nature of this authenticity.
Recently, the situation for queer asylees, who have been or could be persecuted on account of their non-normative sexuality, sexual identity or sexual orientation in their countries of origin, has been drawing attention as an important human rights issue. Based on interview data, this paper argues that queer Mexican asylum seekers in the San Francisco Bay Area in the United States may constitute a specific group in the asylum-migration nexus, and it examines how the members of this group become asylees. Discussing the narrative construction in part of the asylum application process, the paper aims to discover the nuanced reality and meaning of asylum for those asylees who have trans-national mobility and mixed motives in moving. In this legal process, a representation of non-normative gender performance as a fixed sexual identity and a traumatized body can be seen as a valid reason for qualifying for asylum.
This paper examines social services between the world wars in Japan through the activities of one of the humanitarian organizations of the Tokyo Imperial University: the Tokyo Teidai Settlement (1924–1938). The objective of this paper is to give a dynamic description of what happened in Japan in ‘the social’ arena during this period. The activities of the Teidai Settlement were based on the idea that people who were not covered by the existing system were still members of society and the architecture which created these people should be repaired. The repair of this architecture needed assistance from other organizations like the university and the regime. Pre-war social services constituted a work in transition that was trying to discover how social solidarity could be conducted when neither the provider nor the function that the provider could serve was defined or distinguished clearly.
This paper proposes the use of sociological semantic analysis to conduct a historical study of the welfare state. Dating back to the 1990s, theoretical discussions about reconstructing the welfare state have tended to focus on the ideational processes of political decision-making. However, this approach does not consider the state's social structure from a historical perspective. This paper examines the work of Niklas Luhmann, who scrutinized relationships between concepts and social structures, and it evaluates his theory of semantics. Using this analysis, the author shows both that the understanding of the formation of a welfare state in terms of ideals or concepts requires that its semantic character be understood first in its historical context and that Luhmann's self-referential system theory is applicable for this purpose, especially if one focuses on his two central concepts:reflection and the binary code.
This paper examines the conflict between the UPIAS and the DA, organisations in the 1970s' British disability movement. The UPIAS, one of the founders of the “Social Model of Disability,” associated the constructionist view with workfare, which can actually be exclusive against severely disabled people. The DA, on the other hand, advocated an income scheme. Albeit apparently less exclusive, this approach failed to become the mainstream, presumably due to the limited coverage. The problem here is the construction of disability originating from constraints of resources (scarcity). To address the problem, and to dissociate the Social Model from workfare under scarcity, it is necessary to adopt a complex form of inclusion, as well as real freedom of individuals under such complex inclusion.
This paper elaborates the process of how media representation was formed around “Agricultural Communities” in Japan after the war, taking as its lead the NHK program, “Farm Programs.” Most existing studies have focused only on urban tourists' view of such communities rather than discussing the issue of representation as related to social issues like the declining acreage and depopulation that these communities have been coping with. Besides, these studies did not conduct any further analysis either of this representation or of the program's audience, which leaves untouched the question of how the representation was shaped or what kind of negotiation took place between the program's creators and their rural subjects. The present paper will elaborate on the above issues by focusing on NHK's local correspondents as mediators of communication between NHK's directors and Japan's rural society in order to illustrate new possibilities regarding the link between Regional/Rural Sociology and Media Studies.
This article clarifies the relationships between three academic disciplines through a text mining analysis of journals of sociology, the sociology of education, and pedagogy. Through analyses of word frequency and the extent of the similarity among these journals, results reveal that these three disciplines are different in complicated and multi-dimensional ways in terms of their viewpoints and concepts. This article proposes the concept of content-related differentiation for these disciplines.
The theory of social movements has studied political protests with regard to their occurrence, duration, development and participants. Previous research has clarified that diverse factors are involved in all of these elements. Although policing, arrests and interrogations are also essential elements, few researchers have examined them as they occur in contemporary Japan. In this paper, the author conducted a case study based on interviews with arrested activists and their colleagues. From the analysis, the author clarified that arrested protesters are labeled as “radical protesters” both by the police and by people they know in their private lives. On the other hand, policing plays a role in an initiation that makes these protesters more committed to social movements. An arrested activist is recognized as a hero by some protesters. In this way, social movements can develop their sense of solidarity. However, other organizations often regard those arrested as deviant fellow-participants.
The purpose of this paper is to explore the current religious situation in the United States of America within its social context. In American society, modern individualism has become the dominant philosophy. On the other hand, there is a strong religious tradition in the U.S.A. in which Protestant sects predominate. The strong influence that many religious groups and organizations still have will be the focus of this paper in which we will be examining a variety of cases.
By concentrating on the process of making something by hand, this paper considers what kind of value handmade “charm-goods” had for girls in Japan's 1980s boom of “fortune-telling & charm.” It has been said that “charm-goods” in the 1980s “magic-religious popular culture” gave girls their own sense of identity with a world-view that was worthy of them, but with “charm-goods” the fact that they were made by hand has been regarded as being important. This second element seems to have demanded from girls a more active commitment to “fortune-telling and charm.” Through analyzing the articles of “My Birthday,” which is well known as a representative “fortune-telling & charm” magazine for girls, I clarify that “charm-goods” and their being made by hand helped girls to get involved in and improve their real-life communication skills.
Fair trade has been divided into two types; the partnership-type and the certification-type. The purpose of this article is to clarify the fundamental turning point between the two by means of an analysis of the “Certified Label Controversy.” This controversy has been understood as a conflict between “qualitative deepening” and “quantitative expansion,” but this interpretation cannot explain the core of the problem. This article, therefore, presents an alternative interpretation. Here, the point at issue is whether or not commercialism and social justice are compatible. This means that the controversy includes the argument over “the formation of orders.” In short, this watershed for fair trade arises from a difference of view on the relation between “being free” and “a regard for society.”
Immigrant parents living in working-class neighborhoods in French suburbs are accused of a lack of responsibility with regard to their children's education by politicians and schoolteachers. But do they really withdraw from their role as parents? Based on empirical research in a working-class neighborhood of Paris, this article discusses the difficulties Muslim immigrants face as well as the role they desire to play in the education of their children. Immigrant parents seek a balance between the social integration of their children and cultural transmission within the family, and they play a more active role in the second area. By enhancing traditional family values and maintaining their roots, they try to shield themselves and their children from external threats, and provide them with support regarding their sense of identity in the host society.
By referring to A. Schütz's classification of epistemology, this article analyzes the differences between normal care management and care management in small, multi-functional institutions in Fukuyama, Hiroshima Prefecture, in terms of the cognition of those who need care. In normal care management, cognition moves from a personal type to a more abstract and functional type, as the practice moves from the assessment stage to a care planning stage. This shows that cognition always tends to increase its level of abstraction, as is implied in Schütz's classification. However, cognitive abstraction is consciously avoided in Fukuyama, and personal cognition develops into something more individual. This finding may indicate that abstraction levels might define the size of a welfare practice.
Taking the case of Downtown Eastside (DTES), Vancouver, Canada, this paper explains the social impact of the ‘housing first’ approach as a homeless reduction policy in an urban underclass area from the perspective of social inclusion/exclusion. Since the 2000s, the provincial and city governments have executed a ‘housing first’ policy in DTES, an area which has had problems of poverty, drug use and mental illness for a long time. With this policy, support organizations, which were originally working in the area, operated emergency shelters and housing for the homeless. This increased the number of sheltered homeless and improved their access to sufficient degrees of protection and support, but it has also increased the number of socially vulnerable people in DTES, who have come to settle in the area as other areas cannot provide enough support to them.