This paper attempts to clarify the growing process of the dynamic totality of K. Mannheim's social theory, and further, to show the effectiveness of his conception of the completed form of this totality, the “Principia Media”, employed in the explanation of social planning and the formation of human character. The term “principia media” has various meanings; among others, the most important one is that of mediating between the abstract (interpretation) and the concrete(practice).It will be showed that he tried to integrate nominalism and conservative substantialism on the epistemological level.
This paper aims to evaluate Jacques Leenhardt's work, Political reading of the novel (1973), as an attempt to inherit the literary theory maintained by Lucien Goldmann. By introducing seciological analyses into the sociological reading of literary text, Leenhardt succeeds in revealing the ideological meanings that lie behind the text of a novel. The Leenhardt's modifications of Goldmann's methodology, however, make it clear that there is a theoretical limitation in Goldmann's conception. The paper concludes that sociology of literary text should change its point of view to comprehend the relation between the text and the context that conditions the production of text.
Why does a person get contact with mass media? Why does he take part in “mass communication process”? In this paper, I answer this primitive question by referring to the apparatus with which an audience can make “subject” of himself. “Mass communication process” always includes this apparatus, which can involve so many people in this process so deeply. I examine this hypothesis in two ways. First, I analyse some media frames of the news on foreigners in Japan in 1980's. Second, I compare “mass communication process” with some cases of direct interpersonal process and try to extract the essence of “mass communication process” itself.
The Welfare State today is characterized by redistributive policies and positive social regulations. And laws are used as the instrument of the achievement of social policies and social regulations. But these legal regulations seem to fail in social control and rise over-regulation. In the recent discussion this phenomenon i s regarded as “Juridification”. Juridification seems to be an important socio-legal issue of the Welfare State today. In this thesis we refer to the arguement of J. Habermas and G. Teubner, then we make it clear the essence of Juridification and grope for the directions of less repressive regulation in the Welfare State.
Recently it has been evident that current society is the systematized one. It expands beyond immediate experience of people in everyday life and reaches on a global scale. Its range is so wide and complicated that only abstract frame can recognize it. But on the other hand man misses lively relations in which he animates other people and is animated, for the abstract frame of concepts and ideas regards lively people as individuals and objects. In this paper I intend to show that single is the current form which is expressed from dynamics in lively relations of human beings. In terms of lively relations it appears that the systematized society is singular and single is plural.
Historically eugenics was not always an instrument to promote racism, such as in Nazism. In the early twentieth-century Western societies population problem was one of the most important issues. In that context eugenics played a specific role in developing social intervention in individual life or reproduction. This essay tries to trace such a historical role of eugenics through the analysis of the ‘police’ of feeble-mindedness as an example.
The discussion on the civil socialization of enterprises have following two perspectives — “Social Contribution” and “Corporate Culture”. It seems that both are in agreement in that social, cultural needs are externaly satisfied by enterprises and enterprises don't regard the civil socialization of themselves as a part of consistent process of corporate activity. This is the point at issue. The civil socialization of enterprizes means that the civil society is developping from “economic” civil society into “social” one among three types-political, economic and social — of the civil society. Enterprises which have brought about mass society should themselves realize “Corporate Citizenship” and, going back to the starting point of Pubulic Relation again, incubate lifestyle of seikatusha the people in everyday life.
Most previous studies on ie have conceptualized ie as the model of pre-modern feudal family under the impacts of pre-war political system. With this narrow difinition, the various meanings of ie held by people in those times have been neglected. The objective of this paper is to describe the positive meaning of ie in terms of ie founders or successors. Using the data from family laws of merchant houses in the Edo or the Meiji era, we found that they maintained the ambitions to found or sustain their own ie throughout many generations and tried to realize their ambitions in various ways. The results of this research suggest that these positive intention must be understood as a value held among people in those times not as consequences of a feudal political system.
A probelm arises, in the Japanese Companies' attempt to utilize foreign white-collar employees, it being that they do not intend to remain long within one company. The purpose of this paper is to discuss the employment and promotion problems of foreign white-collar employees working for Japanese companies in Japan. This concerns their employee-status and then country of origin. Their career prospects seem to depend on employee-status, working experience, educational background, native languages, etc. To examine such factors is crucial in defining how career prospects are attained, and how prospects are offered by the company. Utilization of foreign employees is inevitable for Japanese companies that struggle to be globalized both in Japan and abroad.
Disaster prevention activities have been important ones in urban communities. Since 1970's, for the purpose of securing communities against future earthquake disasters, disaster prevention organizations have been organaized in Japan, especially, in Tokyo, Shizuoka and so forth. But many local residents are not interested in them. So only a few people have ever participated in them. We hold these activities should be integrated with ones to improve dwelling environment. We need a new conception of disaster prevention activities in urban communities.
This paper tries to examine a basic perspective of sociological disaster research. In addition to the traditional perspective which focuses on the various social systems in the disaster area, two more perspectives are suggested to examine. One is the perspective in terms of which a disaster grasped as one factor to manifest and accelerate the potential social change. Another perspective demands the necessity of reconstruction of the realities of refugees, who otherwise grasped in a monistic manner such as inmates, but they have their own social backgrounds and reasons to do so.
This paper is to consider prospects of the agrarian reform program under the post-authoritarian ‘democratic’ regime of the Philippines. I will show that the weak state, lacking adequate bureaucratic machineries as well as autonomy from landed elite class and clans, cannot implement genuine agrarain reform “from the above”. However, I also pursue the possibility that farmer-beneficiaries of the agrarian reform program, who are empowered by non-government organizations and people's organizations, will develop into self-reliant organizations.
The structure of contemporary society can be analyzed in the term “complex society (società complessa)”. If, however, we attempt to comprehend the entity of each heterogeneous element within the present society, it is very useful to invent another term “composed society (società composite)”. In this context one question we can ask is, “How we can find the latent power of the people who live in the complex society (società complessa)?”
This paper aims to review ARS VIVENDI by Junko ASAKA, Masayuki OKAHARA, Fumiya ONAKA and Shinya TATEIWA. ARS VIVENDI seems a sociologically important work because it succeeds to explicate some patterns of implicit interactions between handicapped persons living independently and others, and because it develops a sociology of social movement.