The purpose of this paper is to present the “sociology of aging and frailty” describing the possibilities and meanings of frailty and death. As a result of reviewing the historical context of the aged society, this paper points out clearly that the aging of modern society is reflexive and suggests an alternative perspective to overcoming such reflexive aging.
This paper analyzes the latent sense of ‘child-rearing’ from the perspective of the mother-child relationship as a cause of decreased births. Emotional closeness has been more important under the influence of modernity in post-war Japan. Modernity has transformed the meaning of emotional closeness of mother and child, too. Now, ‘child-rearing’ implies an exploration of the potentialities of the “pure relationship” (a key phrase), a personal tie by equals, instead of obtaining ontological security for the mother.
One' s awareness of the sexual division of labor would usually be judged by his/her attitude toward the allotment of roles based on sex. However, the study conducted in this paper makes the following two points clear: while objecting to the idea of sex-based role allotment, women think that, because women have an instinctive affection for their family, women should assume the reproductive role, which is the second dimension of the sexual division of labor; men agree to this second dimension of labor division even when their wives are employed. Therefore, the awareness that women are innately affective seems to greatly determine the gender roles.
The point in this paper is that human bodies can be read as texts where conflicts reside. The relationship between this body (the mother's) and that body (the embryo or the born child's) during pregnancy, childbirth and child-rearing is nowadays strictly supervised and this fact cannot be ignored. Medical supervising tells one what this relationship should be lived through. Two persuasive aspects are raised to support this:(1)to read this body that lacks in ability and(2) to regard that body as a subject containing risk factors while remaining in this body, being born and being brought up. J.Fiske (1993) argues two aspects of power which are imperializing and localizing. The purpose of this paper is to further explore the localizing power, which causes ‘suffering’ and ‘evil’.
Attempts have been made in recent years to establish organ transplantation in Japan. However, This medical treatment involves various dilemmas. This paper describes how these dilemmas came about and how they are managed, in terms of three levels (personal gift; social redistribution; and market exchange). As a comparative study of organ transplantation, this study will hopefully provide a framework for further discussion of medelical policies.
Welfare policies in Japan have now come to emphasize the concept of “participation” or a “participatory welfare society”. However, the definition of “participation” remains unclear, and the situations to which this term is applied are criticized by many. This paper attempts to clarify the current notion of “participation” in contrast to that in the 1970s and show that the idea of a “participatory welfare society” stresses the “participation” in personal social service while neglecting participation in planning process. It then examines the difficulty of realizing the latter type of the participation, based on some case studies in 23 wards in Tokyo.
This paper aims to clarify the characteristics of the kin network of urban dwellers by analyzing the factors affecting their formation and some aspects of their intimate networks as indices of selectivity and the preferability in kinship. Data analysis from the survey conducted in seven cities on 732 married residents over thirty years-old found that the educational level and urbanity affect the choice of kin as intimate network partner. It was also revealed that the social context for intimate network is relevant to the size of the network. Other aspects include the frequency of direct contact and how much his or her spouse know his or her intimate network partner.
The members of “Shimin (Citizen) Ombudsman” check governmental use of public money in Japan. In 1995, they requested each prefecture to release the accounting information on conferences, in accordance with the principle of freedom of information. As a result, prefectures cut conference budgets for the next year on average by 57.8 percent. The activities of the “Shimin Ombudsman” are regarded not only as a social movement but also as democratic grass-roots activities. This paper, examining these two characteristics, clarifies the accomplishment of such civic voluntary as potential for a new kind of democratic activity after our missing grand narratives.
The main purpose of this paper is to define some features of the policy-making process of public enterprises in Japan by observing the decision-making process in the construction of the Seibi Shinkansen. In analyzing the policy-making process, the writer applied the arena model, forcusing on problems, participants and power relations as elements in the arena. As a result, three features became clear in this Seibi Shinkansen case: fragmantation of the arena, classification between arenas and non-retroactivity between arenas.
This paper reexamines the literature of Community Power Structure (CPS) studies, especially the “Regime Politics” theory, from which implications can be drawn by Japanese city politics analysts. This paper attempts to exemplify that this new viewpoint of power structure in CPS literature is not only consistent with Japanese traditional regional sociology approach but also helps to describe the transformation of local governance, which is quietly taking root in peripheral towns while exposing some hint of “radical democracy”
It is an undeniable fact that Nohonshugi (Japanese Agrarianism) prospered in pre-war Japan. At that time, Nohonshugi was regarded as a symbol of feudal period in Japan, that is, an ideological basis to protect the landed class. It should be noted, however, that Nohonshugi pursued to construct the ideal rural society and thus was critical of the rural society and the landed class at this time. The aim of this paper is to focus on Seikyo Gondo(1868-1937) and Kanji Kato (1884-1967), two well-known theorists of Nohonshugi, and reinterpret their Nohonshugi from the viewpoint of equalizing the rural society. In this way, it becomes clear how their Nohonshugi had an inclination to dissolve the landed class.
This paper discuss the relation between urban policy and scientists in the age of metropolis formation by focusing on the air defense policy in Tokyo, in terms of two points: (1)the historical context of associating architects with the air-defense policy and (2)the restructuring of urban solidarity based on town and craftsmanship by applying a new control system of architecture. Concludingly, the writer points out the importance of taking into consideration “urban environment policy” in urban studies.
The aim of this paper is to analyze the relation between the immigrant entrepreneurship and the long-term migratory process. The migratory process is often conceived of as a linear settlement process on the host society. In order to reconsider the process critically, I introduce the concept of sojourner defined as an immigrant who has an ambivalent orientation linking ‘temporary stay’ and ‘settlement’. Then I examine the historical development of Japanese immigrant entrepreneurs in Los Angeles focusing on their human or social capital and institutional support (“Kenjinkai” and rotating credit associations). By examining this historical case, Japanese immigrant entrepreneurs prolonged their stay paradoxically because of their sojourning situation. Finally I insist that the settlement process of sojourning immigrants should be considered as unintended consequences.
The new techno-economic system of “information capitalism” may be characterized by interactive constructions between technology networks of products and global capital networks of organizations via the medium of an intellectual property system. This paper examines this hypothesis by using a recent example of new technology construction that has given rise to transgenic crops. In parallel with the technology, two other social relations have emerged: (1) organizational networks of multinational corporations, venture capitals and universities and (2) new patent systems which include living forms. Technological and organizational networks are mapped by co-category analysis of empirical data on R&D collaboration and patent applications. The relation of two maps and the role of the intellectual property systems are also discussed.
Since the 1960-70s, multiculturalism has been discussed as one of the alternatives to integration or assimilation. Referring to the discussion between Ch. Taylor and J. Habermas, this paper points out that they contradict their own concept: The Recognition of Cultural Difference(s), thus making one wonder whether they really recognize the differences of cultures? From a viewpoint within a culture (i.e. internal view-point), Taylor seems to ignore intracultural difference. From without (i.e. external view-point), Habermas postulates a cultural integrity which defines cross-cultural universals. As a result, their discussion is self-contradictory. A culture is not a property to be attributed, but an ongoing integrative process. My discussion is a conceptual one; therefore not ameuable to policy making.
This paper examines the relationship between chorus and community consciousness through an analysis of choral movements in 19th-century Germany. The first polyphonic form consisting of male and female voices created a community consciousness based on cooperation with others. But polyphony exists in tension with a simultaneous utterance of different melodies, and moves towards a stabler form. This form was included in unison choral movements derived from polyphonic choral movements. Unison chorus brings about a consciousness of homogeneity. From this derivation of unison, we can understand the German society as being oriented towards a ‘Volksgemeinschaft’—a purely homogeneous community.
“Autobiographical acts” not only describe or narrate a particular individual's life but also embody the norms and values acceptable to their (imagined) readers' community. Considering their own sociability, they have to be understood, not as a retreat or withdrawal from the public sphere into privacy or secrecy, but as a prefigured invention of social relationships (i.e., bourgeois public sphere) which supposes dynamism rather than opposition between public and private life. This paper aims to examine the historical interplay between autobiographical acts and their sociability, through various forms of self-narratives (confessions, exemplary autobiographies, novels of development, intimate journals, epistolary writings, etc.) in eighteenth- and nineteenth-century France, through figures or representations of adolescence, as well as through double trust in the veracity of language and the authenticity of self under which conditions they invent intimacy.
This paper aims to analyze to effects of emotional labour on self-identity in the caring process. In this process, nurses are expected to identify and meet patients' emotional needs. To do so, nurses must manage patients' emotions and establish rapport with patients by paying attention to their own emotions and patients' emotional expressions. Nurses are willing to make rapport with their patients and it is their duty to do so; however, excessive rapport may become an obstacle in their efforts to care for their patients. This paper focuses on how nurses suffer from feelings of ambivalence as double standards of warm feelings and strict rules are imposed on them in the caring process.
Simmel's Soziologie deals with some types of ‘excluded’ person such as the stranger, the enemy, and the poor. Although Simmel himself didn't state explicitly what ‘exclusion’ means, it seems to be an important concept in his formal sociology. As a result of examining the types of excluded persons, especially the stranger, in the contexts of ‘a priori conditions of society’ and ‘triad’, we are to define ‘exclusion’ as a form of sociation (Vergesellschaftung). This form of sociation is a synthesis of combination with someone and separation of another. It forms a ‘double group’ which consists of a closer circle without ‘excluded’ persons and a larger circle containing them.
Much attention has been paid recently to the social theory of Jürgen Habermas. However, it has also attracted strong criticisms from broader academic fields. One of the criticisms comes from feminism theorists, focusing on his ideally proposed conception of public sphere. This paper examines Nancy Fraser's criticism as a typical example to point out that she may be underestimating the power in Habermas's social theory. Although most of her commentaries make sense, they nevertheless tend to overlook the role of communication (or discourse) in his theory, which operates as a device for discovering (or to approaching) the truth.
This paper focuses on the problem of foundation in science. In order to approach this topic, Michael Lynch's criticism of Alfred Schutz's demarcation between common-sense rationality and scientific rationality is cited. From this, it is claimed that the demarcation to be examined is between science as working and scientific theorizing. Regarding the former, laboratory practices are discussed based on findings of laboratory studies. Regarding the latter, a theorizing in sociology is analyzed. By these double demonstrations, it is recognized that there is no such demarcation and no need for scientific foundation, and that we should study common-sense categories and ‘scientific’ practice in their own rights.