"King" was published in 1924 as a popular entertainment magazine. At this time many factory workers flowed into the city and became readers, so it broke through the circulation level of 1 million copies for the first time in Japan. The purpose of this study is to clarify the condition of working class family entertainment through an analysis of "King" from its first issue until the early stages of Showa. The results are as follows. 1) There were both series of reports and other single reports that related to the home. However, after 1931, the series finished, and other reports about home decreased gradually. 2) Articles about "entertainment" were second most common in the "Katei sekusyon (Home section)" series. 3) There were lots of "funny stories" and "knowledge of miscellaneous matters" in the "entertainment" articles. 4) Almost all reports were short, and they did not have any context either. Therefore, readers with poor reading ability were able to enjoy them too. 5) "King" was read with all family members as one of the pleasures of a happy home. 6) "Play", such as parlor games, "home dance" and "home talent shows" also formed part of family entertainment.
This paper re-examines the definition of "local group", or "neighbor", in Java. Former studies of Southeast Asia tend to emphasize loose social structure and dyadic social relations. In Java, rituals are held by inviting neighbors to the host family's residence, usually for rites of passage. Neighbor women participate in rewang practice by helping to prepare for rituals mainly by cooking. Rewang has much effect on social relations, especially among neighbors through gossip. It is also an important occasion for mutual help based on the reciprocity rule, which creates and maintains social relations among neighbors. This paper presents a case study of conflict between two women that arose from a catering business and ended up with the segregation of one of the women from her neighbors. The description is mainly based on fieldwork I conducted in central Java over a period of 22 months between 2001 and 2003. Iri (envy or jealousy) relates to this case between neighbors, who believe they should be equal socially. Gossip and actions based on iri feelings are aimed toward the equalization of neighbors. From analysis of this conflict case, we can also see the existence of common feelings among neighbors. Thus social relations are not merely based on dyadic relations, as former studies have pointed out. This feeling of neighborhood is created and maintained through the mutual-help network.
This study is aimed at considering elements of outside space of housing form prescribed by "traditional festival" and the correlation between traditional housing form and "traditional festival". We clarify the present conditions of a traditional festival in M village and "relation of a site and a road" and "site entrance", "garden", "opening (window for going through)", form of "housing entrance". A site entrance cannot reflect intention of a resident by "site and road" so that it is fixed, but, as for "garden" "opening" "housing entrance" "housing form", reflection is possible. Therefore, we can clarify the elements which resident makes much of in a housing form by grasping a characteristic of "garden" "opening" "housing entrance" "housing form". When it did modeling of a housing form based on "site entrance and road", it became clear "garden" "opening" that one side was a uniformity degree universality elements posted in the south side at least. "Garden" and "opening" form ware handed down. As for the traditional housing form in M village, it is prescribed by "traditional festival".
In 1904, the first restaurant in Japanese department store appeared at Shiroki-ya department store. Since then, other department stores had opened up restaurants in their stores. Because there were so many calls for restaurants in department store, they grew bigger and got diversified. In 1930, Mitsukoshi department store started to serve okosama-lunch. It was a reflection of the customers in those days which was formed by the new-middle class. Department store made their grocery section extended especially after the great Kanto Earthquake. As the grocery section extended its new from selling food products at reasonable price to gifts and souzais, many department stores had started food manufacturing on their own. As a result of them, some problems had arisen. One of the problems was discharge of scrap; the remains of a meal wash. There is indication in the report of Tokyo City in 1930 that department stores new discharging scrap heavily. While the restaurants were these certain classes, the grocery section of the department store was targeting various classes of customers. The facts tell us that food section of department store in modern Japan played a part in the change of eating habit, while made multiplexing at once.
This paper examines the connection between the citizens' voluntary activities and the development of a community by looking at the actual process of community formation in Setagaya, which can be seen as the exemplary case for the formation of a new community in Japan. Setagaya is a place whose population is made up largely of people coming from the outside areas after the 1920s, and thus barely has communities of its own to link local residents. Having faced such circumstances in the 1970s, some individuals started to organize voluntary groups to support those in need, especially handicapped persons who came from other parts of Japan and settled in Setagaya. Since these groups had little connections between them, they sought to set up a network to bridge their activities and address common issues by organizing a social event, which they chose to call a 'festival (matsuri)', to provide for them and local residents a platform for communication and sharing of information as well as the place for amusements. This festival, called 'Zakkyo-Matsuri', which literally means a festival by and for people with different values and needs living in the same region, has contributed to promote the formation of a community in Setagaya, which became a precedent for community development in other parts of Japan.
The purpose of this paper is to understand how the Japanese have received the electric fan by investigating changes in the form of the guard. In the beginning electric fans either did not have guards, or, if they did, they were very minimal. The main role of these guards was to protect the propeller. However, even at the very beginning the radiating line type and the concentric type design, the archetypal forms of the guard, existed. In particular the radiating line type design has had a long life and has greatly influenced the design of electric fans made in Japan. As fans became more popular with consumers, the role of the guard changed from protecting the propeller to protecting the human body against injury from the propeller. At first this took the form of a rather tasteless wire net, however the design evolved into a graceful and elaborate guard. The guard itself came to be a focus of the advertising, adding charm and elegance to the base product. Because the guard was central to creating a good impression with consumers, changes in the design of the guard led to changes in the design of electric fans.
This paper will examine "new operators of heritages" (nouveaux operateurs du patrimoine), who have appeared gradually with the increase in popularity of heritages since the 1960s. In particular, we will argue that an occupational or professional group is one of the various types of current cultural operators whose purpose is "to work" for the protection and operational use of patrimoine. We will focus specifically on the professional or technical group "House of Park" (Maison du Pare) in Natural Regional Park in France and begin to describe its dynamic and important activities. Based on staff interviews, this paper will then analyze the significance of group members who protect their heritage or the meaning of the practical activities they conducted from the viewpoint of their daily lives. This will ultimately lead to a discovery of the characteristics of the staff, who, optimizing their professional skills, participate in the protection of the park as a heritage and simultaneously utilize it for the region and to earn their living. The unique objective of this finding is to analyze cultural operators not only as people motivated by "passion for heritages," as in the case of some former studies of voluntary associations, but also as those motivated by "passion for their work."-
I have a Senegalese friend living in a city near Tokyo. He came to Japan in 1999 and married a Japanese woman. He has been teaching how to play the drum and dance to his Japanese students since then. This paper is a report on his family background. His family lives in Dakar, the capital of Senegal. There are two points. First, after the traffic accidental death of his father, his mother married his father's friend, for the two men had promised mutual help in time of need and she accepted the proposal of marriage. She became the second wife of her late husband's friend, observing their custom of polygamy. Secondly, in Senegal a newborn baby is named after his or her father's relative's name or friend's name. After the ceremony of name-giving, the relative or friend whose name was taken, that is, turandoo, becomes a kind of parent of the child whom the name was given to. For example, three years before the accident, the two men each had their own newborn son, and named them after each other's name. I think the custom of name-giving by turandoo is one of the important means of strengthening family ties.
How much times do we need to spend in our dietary behaviors time? We investigate it from our time distribution and our diet. Therefore, we made a draft of criterion for Time Use classification focused on the dietary behaviors. That classification was set on each time of the followings, "Dietary behavior" "Household work" "Physically Social/Cultural activities" "Exercise/Rest" "Paid work". Dietary behaviors time included time for having Meal time and Food preparation time. We analyzed the behaviors of a woman during child care period in 27 successive days using our classfication, and compared with the Time Use Classification of Ito/Amano. The results were as follows: The classification of Ito/Amano (1) did not have shopping item for only purchase of food materials, (2) Child care and House life management items included Food preparation time. It was suggested that our classification is effective to catch the whole dietary behavior and it could be used on the nutrition programes practically.